Assignment: Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders NURS 6521

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Assignment: Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders NURS 6521

Assignment: Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders NURS 6521

Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

Abdominal infections could be associated with a wide range of clinical features, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In that regard, therefore, it would be easy to confuse one diagnosis over the other. This essay considers a study presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, the diagnosis made, and the treatment options are taken.

Diagnosis

Hepatitis C is a possible diagnosis for HL. This condition would appear asymptomatic, but when symptoms occur, they could be mild or even severe. HL symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, are prevalent with hepatitis C infection. This condition could be caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasitic infections. The infection can also be found in contaminated food or water, while chemical agents have also been shown to be causative. The diagnosis can be made using tests that include serologic assays, which measure the levels of antibodies that are generated, and the molecular assays which would detect the presence of HCV RNA (Chalasani et al., 2018).

Appropriate Drug Therapy Plan

In this case study, the therapeutic options recommendable include Hepatitis C pegylated interferon-α (IFN-α), administered weekly. Additionally, the patient is put on a daily dose of ribavirin for about 24 to 48 weeks. The combination is effective in clearing the HCV genotypes, especially 2 and 3 infections. The patient should also be put on food therapy. It is recommended that eating a frequent balanced diet possibly prevents nausea and vomiting associated with the disease. The balanced diet should be composed of cereals, whole grains, vegetables, and even fruits. There should also be a moderate to high protein diet to heal the infected liver tissue (Venugopal et al., 2018). The patient should also avoid certain drugs like aminoglycoside antibiotics, sedatives, and acetaminophen, which are considered hepatotoxic in high doses.

Appropriate use of the proper diagnostic approaches forms the basis of diagnosis, which informs the kind of intervention to be taken. Viruses, bacteria, and chemical agents can cause HCV. The condition can be treated using pegylated interferon-α (IFN-α) and ribavirin.

 

 

References

Chalasani, N., Younossi, Z., Lavine, J. E., Charlton, M., Cusi, K., Rinella, M., … Sanyal, A. J. (2018). The diagnosis and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Practice guidance from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology, 67(1), 328–357. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.29367

Venugopal, V., Padmanabhan, P., Raja, R., & Dixit, N. M. (2018). Modelling how responsiveness to interferon improves interferon-free treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. PLoS Computational Biology, 14(7), e1006335. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006335

Photo Credit: Getty Images/iStockphoto

Gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary disorders affect the structure and function of the GI tract. Many of these disorders often have similar symptoms, such as abdominal pain, cramping, constipation, nausea, bloating, and fatigue. Since multiple disorders can be tied to the same symptoms, it is important for advanced practice nurses to carefully evaluate patients and prescribe a treatment that targets the cause rather than the symptom.

Once the underlying cause is identified, an appropriate drug therapy plan can be recommended based on medical history and individual patient factors. In this Assignment, you examine a case study of a patient who presents with symptoms of a possible GI/hepatobiliary disorder, and you design an appropriate drug therapy plan.

To Prepare

Review the case study assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment
Reflect on the patient’s symptoms, medical history, and drugs currently prescribed.
Think about a possible diagnosis for the patient. Consider whether the patient has a disorder related to the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary system or whether the symptoms are the result of a disorder from another system or other factors, such as pregnancy, drugs, or a psychological disorder.
Consider an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.
By Day 7 of Week 4

Write a 1-page paper that addresses the following:

Explain your diagnosis for the patient, including your rationale for the diagnosis.
Describe an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.
Justify why you would recommend this drug therapy plan for this patient. Be specific and provide examples.
Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/57.htm). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
Click the Week 4 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
Click the Week 4 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 4 Assignment Rubric

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Week 4 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 4

To participate in this Assignment:

Week 4 Assignment

What’s Coming Up in Module 4?

 

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

In the next module, you will examine types of drugs prescribed to patients with endocrine disorders, such as diabetes, and you will consider the impact of patient factors on the effects of these drugs.

Next Week

To go to the next week:

Module 4

 

Module 4: Endocrine System

The endocrine system plays an important role in the regulation and coordination of activities throughout the body. When alterations of these systems occur, many patients require long-term drug therapies. In addition to drugs prescribed by their health care providers, patients with these disorders also often take herbal and dietary supplements. This may impact the effects of prescribed drugs, as well as pose a concern of adverse drug reactions in patients. When treating patients with endocrine disorders, it is important to educate them on associated risks. As an advanced practice nurse prescribing drugs, you must carefully consider all drug, herbal, and dietary therapies prior to finalizing treatment plans.

What’s Happening This Module?

Module 4: Endocrine System is a 1-week module, Week 5 of the course. In this module, you examine types of drugs prescribed to patients with endocrine disorders, as well as consider the impact of patient factors on the effects of drugs. You also examine types of diabetes and the impact of diabetes drugs on patients.

What do I have to do?
When do I have to do it?
Review your Learning Resources
Days 1-7, Week 5
Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments
Post by Day 3 of Week 5, and respond to your colleagues by Day 6 of Week 5.
Go to the Week’s Content

Week 5

 

Week 5: Endocrine System Disorders and the Treatment of Diabetes

The endocrine system includes eight major glands throughout the body which affect such things as growth and development, metabolism, sexual function, and mood (National Institutes of Health). Some of the most commonly diagnosed endocrine disorders include hypothyroidism, diabetes, and Hashimoto’s disease. Not surprisingly, treating any one endocrine disorder may have effects on other body systems or their functions. As an advanced practice nurse, treating patients who may suffer from endocrine disorders requires an acute understanding of the structure and function of the endocrine system. Additionally, a solid understanding of patient factors and behaviors will assist in developing the best drug therapy plans possible to treat your patients. Some of most commonly diagnosed endocrine disorders include

This week, you differentiate the types of diabetes and examine the impact of diabetes drugs on patients. You also evaluate alternative drug treatments and patient education strategies for diabetes management.

Reference: National Institutes of Health. (n. d.). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders. Endocrine diseases. Retrieved July 3, 2019 from https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases

Learning Objectives

Students will:

Differentiate types of diabetes
Evaluate the impact of diabetes drugs on patients
Evaluate alternative drug treatments and patient education strategies for diabetes management

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Chapter 48, “Drugs for Diabetes Mellitus” (pp. 397–415)
Chapter 49, “Drugs for Thyroid Disorders” (pp. 416–424)

American Diabetes Association. (2018). Pharmacologic approaches to glycemic treatment: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care, 41(Supplement 1), S73–S85. Retrieved from http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/41/supplement_1/s73.full-text.pdf

 

This article provides guidance on pharmacologic approaches to glycemic treatment as it pertains to treating patients with diabetes. Reflect on the content of this article as you continue to examine potential drug treatments for patients with diabetes.

Document: Mid-Term Summary & Study Guide (PDF)

Week 4: Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

As an advanced practice nurse, you will likely encounter patients who will present with symptoms affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Of special note, is the consideration that most symptoms concerning the GI tract are non-specific and therefore, diagnosing diagnoses of the GI tract require thoughtful and careful investigation. Similarly, hepatobiliary disorders may also mirror many of the signs and symptoms that patients present when suffering from GI disorders.

How might you tease out the specific signs and symptoms between these potential disorders and body systems? What drug therapy plans will best address these disorders for your patients?

This week, you examine GI and hepatobiliary disorders. You will review a patient case study and consider those factors in recommending and prescribing a drug therapy plan fo your patient.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate diagnoses for patients with gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders
  • Justify drug therapy plans based on patient history and diagnosis

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 64, “Drugs for Peptic Ulcer Disease” (pp. 589–597)
  • Chapter 65, “Laxatives” (pp. 598–604)
  • Chapter 66, “Other Gastrointestinal Drugs” (pp. 605–616)
  • Chapter 80, “Antiviral Agents I: Drugs for Non-HIV Viral Infections” (pp. 723–743)

Rubric Detail

Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric’s layout.

Name: NURS_6521_Week4_Assignment_Rubric
Grid View
List View
Excellent Good Fair Poor
Explain your diagnosis for the patient, including your rationale for the diagnosis.
23 (23%) – 25 (25%)
The response accurately and clearly explains in detail the diagnosis for the patient, including an accurate and thorough rationale for the diagnosis that supports clinical judgment.
20 (20%) – 22 (22%)
The response provides a basic explanation of 1-2 diagnoses for the patient, including an accurate rationale for the diagnosis that may support clinical judgment.
18 (18%) – 19 (19%)
The response inaccurately or vaguely explains the diagnosis for the patient, including an inaccurate or vague rationale for the diagnosis that may or may not support clinical judgment.
0 (0%) – 17 (17%)
The response inaccurately and vaguely explains the diagnosis for the patient, including an inaccurate and vague rationale for the diagnosis that does not support clinical judgment, or is missing.
Describe an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.
27 (27%) – 30 (30%)
The response accurately and completely describes in detail an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.
24 (24%) – 26 (26%)
The response describes a basic explanation of the appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.
21 (21%) – 23 (23%)
The response inaccurately or vaguely describes an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.
0 (0%) – 20 (20%)
The response inaccurately and vaguely describes an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.
Justify why you would recommend this drug therapy plan for this patient. Be specific and provide examples.
27 (27%) – 30 (30%)
The response provides an accurate, clear, and detailed justification for the recommended drug therapy plan for this patient.

The response includes specific, accurate, and detailed examples that fully support the justification provided.
24 (24%) – 26 (26%)
The response provides a basic justification for the recommended drug therapy plan for this patient.

The response includes only 1-2 examples that fully support the justification provided.
21 (21%) – 23 (23%)
The response provides an inaccurate or vague justification for the recommended drug therapy plan for this patient.

The response may include examples, which may inaccurately or vaguely support the justification provided.
0 (0%) – 20 (20%)
The response provides an inaccurate and vague justification for the recommended drug therapy plan for this patient, or is missing.

The response does not include examples that support the justification provided, or is missing.
Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization:
Paragraphs make clear points that support well developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance.
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity.
4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time.
3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%–79% of the time.
0 (0%) – 3 (3%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity less than 60% of the time.
Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards:
Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors
4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Contains a few (1–2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors
3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%)
Contains several (3–4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors
0 (0%) – 3 (3%)
Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding
Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running head, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list.
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Uses correct APA format with no errors
4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Contains a few (1–2) APA format errors
3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%)
Contains several (3–4) APA format errors
0 (0%) – 3 (3%)
Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors
Total Points: 100
Name: NURS_6521_Week4_Assignment_Rubric

NURS_6521_Week4_Assignment_Rubric

Excellent Good Fair Poor
Explain your diagnosis for the patient, including your rationale for the diagnosis.
Points Range: 23 (23%) – 25 (25%)
The response accurately and clearly explains in detail the diagnosis for the patient, including an accurate and thorough rationale for the diagnosis that supports clinical judgment.
Points Range: 20 (20%) – 22 (22%)
The response provides a basic explanation of 1-2 diagnoses for the patient, including an accurate rationale for the diagnosis that may support clinical judgment.
Points Range: 18 (18%) – 19 (19%)
The response inaccurately or vaguely explains the diagnosis for the patient, including an inaccurate or vague rationale for the diagnosis that may or may not support clinical judgment.
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 17 (17%)
The response inaccurately and vaguely explains the diagnosis for the patient, including an inaccurate and vague rationale for the diagnosis that does not support clinical judgment, or is missing.
Describe an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.
Points Range: 27 (27%) – 30 (30%)
The response accurately and completely describes in detail an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.
Points Range: 24 (24%) – 26 (26%)
The response describes a basic explanation of the appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.
Points Range: 21 (21%) – 23 (23%)
The response inaccurately or vaguely describes an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 20 (20%)
The response inaccurately and vaguely describes an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.
Justify why you would recommend this drug therapy plan for this patient. Be specific and provide examples.
Points Range: 27 (27%) – 30 (30%)

The response provides an accurate, clear, and detailed justification for the recommended drug therapy plan for this patient.

The response includes specific, accurate, and detailed examples that fully support the justification provided.

Points Range: 24 (24%) – 26 (26%)

The response provides a basic justification for the recommended drug therapy plan for this patient.

The response includes only 1-2 examples that fully support the justification provided.

Points Range: 21 (21%) – 23 (23%)

The response provides an inaccurate or vague justification for the recommended drug therapy plan for this patient.

The response may include examples, which may inaccurately or vaguely support the justification provided.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 20 (20%)

The response provides an inaccurate and vague justification for the recommended drug therapy plan for this patient, or is missing.

The response does not include examples that support the justification provided, or is missing.

Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization:
Paragraphs make clear points that support well developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance.
Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity.
Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time.
Points Range: 3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%–79% of the time.
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 3 (3%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity less than 60% of the time.
Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards:
Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation
Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors
Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Contains a few (1–2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors
Points Range: 3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%)
Contains several (3–4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 3 (3%)
Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding
Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running head, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list.
Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Uses correct APA format with no errors
Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Contains a few (1–2) APA format errors
Points Range: 3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%)
Contains several (3–4) APA format errors
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 3 (3%)
Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors
Total Points: 100
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