Capella University Characteristics and Functions Dr Corey Group Proposal Discussion

Capella University Characteristics and Functions Dr Corey Group Proposal Discussion

Question Description
Imagine you are presenting to your state school counseling association at a conference. The majority of the attendees graduated prior to CACREP accreditation standards requiring training on group counseling. The audience is eager to learn about the basic tenants of group counseling and how they might apply it to their school settings. You are the expert in the room and are going to deliver a presentation that will inform the attendees and empower them to leave the room with the necessary knowledge to create a group proposal at their school sites. As a frame of reference, imagine everyone at the conference has watched The Evolution of a Group video by Dr. Gerald Corey and Marianne S. Corey. Address each of the sections in this video in your presentation, and use the video as your frame of reference. You may use any of your foundational work from the course, including discussions, articles, resources, and assignments, for your final product. Each attendee in the conference will take home a copy of your document. You can embellish the product as much as you want; but remember, you must meet the criteria set forth in the scoring guide. This assignment may be written as a traditional paper, a slideshow presentation, or some combination, as long as you convey that you understand the core concepts and can share that information with the imaginary attendees at your presentation. For this assignment, you will create a single document that addresses each of the following points:

Consider the theoretical foundation used for the group counseling sessions in the video. Describe what they did that demonstrated their use of that theory. (One page.)
Analyze the dynamics of the group and how they evolved over the course of the group. Include examples from the sessions, including initial, transition, working, and final stages. (1–4 pages.)
Describe the therapeutic factors Dr. Corey and Corey used, or could have used, in The Evolution of a Group video, and how the factors contributed to group effectiveness. You can describe as many as you would like. However, you should describe at least five factors to demonstrate your understanding of how those factors may affect the group. Examples include confrontation or universality. (2–5 pages.)
Describe the characteristics and functions Dr. Corey and Corey used, or could have used, to demonstrate effective group leadership skills. You can describe as many as you would like. However, you should describe at least five skills to demonstrate your understanding of how those skills may affect the group. Examples include empathizing and terminating. (2–5 pages.)
Describe the culturally relevant strategies Dr. Corey and Corey used while designing and facilitating the group. (One page.)
Describe a group counseling technique that Dr. Corey and Corey used to promote positive social/emotional outcomes for the group members. How did the leaders connect what was happening in the group to how they could take that learning to the outside world? Or, if you did not see this skill, what could you have done as the group leader to make this a more overt connection? Remember that the skill to transfer the learning from inside the group to the group member’s own world is critical for effective group leaders. (One page.)
Review the Group Proposal Scoring Guide to ensure you meet the grading criteria. Please remember to focus your effort on the content of the presentation. Although appearance matters, the bulk of the grading will relate to your ability to convey the knowledge acquired in the course.

Your assignment should meet the following requirements:

Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message.
APA format: Resources and citations are formatted according to current APA guidelines.
Length: 8–17 pages.
Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.

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Demographics are essential since they offer an exhaustive comprehension of a population’s various features. The provided information is particularly vital to government organizations and institutions for making crucial policy decisions concerning the people(Stover et al., 2021). Similarly, demographics data is critical as it gives the health authorities andpopulace information they need to strategies and implements future investments and services; data from sources such as the CDC and the US Census aids in determining where assistance programs need to be directed (UNAIDS, 2021)

The achievement gap between Caucasian and poor and
minority students,specificallyAfricanAmerican and Hispanic
students, continuesto be an important and controversial educational issue, with the gap continuing to widen (EducationTrust,
2000b). Recent educational statistics also show a gender gap
with girls as a group achieving at a higher level than boys, and
fewer young men than young women enrolling in and completing college (Clark, Oakley, & Adams, 2006; NCES, 2006).
The school counseling profession has gone through a major
transformation in the past decade, asreflected in theAmerican
School Counselor Association (ASCA) national standards
(Campbell & Dahir, 1997), the ASCA (2005a) National
Model, and the EducationTrust’s(1997)Transforming School
Counseling Initiative movement, all of which emphasize the
essential principle of working to help allstudents be successful
in school. Furthermore, recent legislation such asthe No Child
Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB; 2002), a reauthorization of
the Elementary and Secondary EducationAct (1965), and the
Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; 2004)
have provided the legal foundation for schools to improve
educational outcomes for all students (Felton, 2005; Yell,
Katsiyannas, & Shiner, 2006). Additionally, Section 504 of
the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is a civil rights piece of legislation that has supported accommodations for students with
disabilities that have not been covered under IDEA (Council
of Administrators of Special Education, 1999). For example,
students who may have been diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder orspecific mental or physical health
issues may receive classroom accommodations, such as
extended time on assignments or specific classroom seating.
The application and implementation of this legislation has
increased greatly in recent years, resulting in more students
receiving classroom accommodations.
NCLB (2002) requires that all schools demonstrably
improve achievement so that all public school students
Mary Ann Clark and Jennifer Crandall Breman, Department of Counselor Education, University of Florida. Jennifer Crandall Breman is now
at School Board of Alachua County, Gainesville, Florida. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Mary Ann Clark,
Department of Counselor Education, University of Florida, Box 117046, Gainesville, FL 32611-7046 (e-mail:
School Counselor Inclusion:
A Collaborative Model to Provide
Academic and Social-Emotional Support
in the Classroom Setting
Mary Ann Clark and Jennifer Crandall Breman
The increasingly diverse student demographics reflect a myriad of needs in the interrelated arenas of educational
achievement, social-behavioral adjustment, and career development, while federal legislation, the ethical standards of
the American School Counselor Association (ASCA; 2004a), and the ASCA (2005a) National Model have emphasized
academic achievement and success for all students. This article describes a new model of school counselor “inclusion”
that involves collaboration with classroom teachers and changes the setting of school counselor interventions to the
classroom for small-group and individual work.
Journal of Counseling & Development ■ Winter 2009 ■ Volume 87
School Counselor Inclusion: A Collaborative Model
are proficient by the end of the 2013–2014 school year.
An accountability system of measurable milestones called
adequate yearly progress requires states and schools to use
numerical data to provide evidence of improved student
outcomes for all subgroups, which include students who
are economically disadvantaged, students from racial and
ethnic subgroups, students with disabilities, and students
with limited English proficiency (Yell et al., 2006).
Although NCLB(2002) has a more general, academic focus,
IDEA (2004) and Section 504 of the RehabilitationAct of 1973
add a focus on the individual student, with supports offered
for social and behavioral components as well as the academic
dimension. Other IDEA concepts include the least restrictive
learning environment, stipulating that a student’s placement
will maximize the student’s integration in the classroom, and
normalization, which ensures that students will be taught basic
skills necessary for living a normal life.As the pressure to meet
higher academic standards for all students has increased, the
corresponding pressure on educatorsto produce results has also
increased.TheASCA(2005a)NationalModel hasrecommended
that counselors spend 80% of their time in direct services with
students. Large-group classroom guidance, small-group work,
and individual counseling are the traditional interventions that
counselors have used to directly affect students in a developmental, comprehensive school counseling program (Gysbers
& Henderson, 2006; Myrick, 2003). The Transforming School
Counseling Initiativemovement(EducationTrust, 1997) and the
implementation oftheASCANationalModel have increased the
emphasis on the role of consultation and collaboration among
school counselors and importantstakeholders: the students, their
parents, teachers, and administrators. Serving as educational
leaders and advocates for student success has created new and
important rolesforschool counselorsto be involved atsystemic
levels of change and reform to promote access to opportunities
for allstudents(Clark&Stone, 2007; DeVoss&Andrews, 2006;
House & Martin, 1998; Stone & Dahir, 2006).
Paradoxically, pulling students out of class for direct
services, which has been the traditional way of carrying
out small-group and individual counseling, is becoming an
increasingly difficult undertaking (Carpenter, King-Sears, &
Keys, 1998). Many teachers in today’s teaching environment
are less willing to letstudentsleave their classroomsfor counseling interventions because missing class time means less
academic time available to include preparation for high-stakes
tests required by NCLB (2002). Teachers often request that
school counselorstake students out during “noninstructional”
time,such asrecess, physical education, art, or music classes,
which may be highlights of the day for a struggling student.
School counselors, guidance supervisors, and counselor educators are asking the question, How will school counselors
be able to work directly with students to help them in the
academic and social-emotional arenas if access to students
is so limited? In light of the fact that social and behavioral
issues can have academic consequences(Elias, Breune-Butler,
Blum, & Schuyler, 1997; Kemple, Duncan, & Strangis, 2002;
Zins, Bloodworth, Weissberg, & Walberg, 2004), it becomes
even more pressing for counselors to find innovative ways to
provide these important supports to the students.
Although large-group guidance sessions, which are intended
to reach the largest number of students about developmental
and informational issues(Gysbers&Henderson, 2006; Myrick,
2003), continue to be a foundational part of most counseling
programs and are optimally conducted with the involvement
of the classroom teacher, individual and small-group work has
become much more difficult to schedule. In this article, we
propose a new delivery system to work with individual and
small-group counseling, within the classroom setting, and in
collaboration with teachers. We discuss the background of the
inclusion model of education, which was originally used in the
field of special education, the rationale for its use, and its application to school counseling to help better meet the academic
and social-behavioral needs of today’s students.
Thinking About Inclusion
School counselors have traditionally been important team
players in the process of identification and placement of
special education students, as well as consulting on the development of their individualized educational programs (IEPs;
Carpenter et al., 1998; Myrick, 2003; Stone & Dahir, 2006)
and, at times, being a directservice provider for counseling. In
the special education literature, inclusion refers to providing
services to special education students within a regular classroom setting to the extent possible rather than pulling them out
for remediation in a special classroom setting. Inclusion has
had its growing pains, and there has been much debate in the
field of special education about how best to service students
in an inclusion model (McLeskey & Waldron, 2002).
The following is a definition of inclusion that we believe
is specifically applicable to school counseling interventions
(Ferguson, 1995):
Inclusion is a process of meshing general and special education reform initiatives and strategies in order to achieve
a unified system of public education that incorporates all
children and youth as active, fully participating members
of the school community; that views diversity as the norm;
and that ensures a high-quality education for each student
by providing meaningful curriculum, effective teaching, and
necessary supports for each student. (p. 285)
This definition shifts the concept of special education inclusion to a more systemic inclusion.That is, an inclusion model
ideally would be one that embraces the concept of providing
academic and social-emotionalsupport to allstudentsthrough
a myriad of approaches, a variety of services and innovative
interventions in classroom settings, whether or not students
receive special education services. Furthermore, ifsuch inclusion practices can be potentially applied to all students, then
it is less likely that individual students will feel stigmatized
because of their learning needs, interests, and preferences.
Journal of Counseling & Development ■ Winter 2009 ■ Volume 87
Clark & Breman
Although the original intent of the inclusion model has
been to provide services for students identified for special
education in the least restrictive environment, the principles
can be used for many students who may need help in academic
achievement and social-behavioral dimensions of theirschool
lives who may not qualify for such services but who, indeed,
could benefit from extra support. Traditionally, the school
counselor has often been involved in providing specific counseling services as part of an IEP, butsuch counseling services
are usually done in a pullout manner rather than as part of a
classroom delivery system.We believe thatschool counselors
can apply the principles of inclusion in their individual and
small-group counseling interventionsin the classroom setting
for a variety of student needs. The aspect of working in the
classroom setting is particularly important because students
are oftentimes anxious about material they are missing while
out of the classroom, or they are embarrassed by the labeling
they receive by being pulled out by various service providers
(Barry, 1994; Ferguson & Ralph, 1996; Salend & Garrick
Duhaney, 1999).
A Systemic Inclusion Model
for School Counselors
ASCA has developed a series of position statements about the
involvement ofthe school counselorin a variety ofinterventions.
These statementssupportthe provision ofservicesfor allstudents
in the three important domains of academic, personal/social,
and career development. According to the position statement
(ASCA, 2004b) on students with special needs, professional
school counselors are committed to helping all students realize
their potential and make adequate yearly progress despite challengesthatmay resultfromidentified disabilities and otherspecial
needs.The position statement(ASCA, 2005b) on comprehensive
school counseling programs highlights the collaborative effort
between the professionalschool counselor, other educators, and
parentsto create an environment that promotesstudent achievement, values and responds to the diverse needs of students, and
ensures equitable accessfor allstudentsto participate fully in the
educational process. Likewise, the EducationTrust(1997), in its
Transforming School Counseling Initiative, believesthatschool
counselors as leaders and team members work with teachers,
parents, administrators, and students, having an enormousimpact
on student choices and future options. Ideally positioned in the
school to serve as student advocates, they can create opportunities for all students to nurture and accomplish high aspirations
(Education Trust, 2003a).
The systemic inclusion model that we propose for school
counselors is based on principles of direct services in the form
of individual and small-group counseling, large-group classroom guidance work, and collaboration and consultation with
classroom teachers where the inclusion interventions will take
place. The ASCA (2005a) National Model includes the aforementioned interventions as a part of responsive services.
Individual and Small-Group
Inclusion Interventions
Villa, Thousand, Nevin, and Liston (2005) described several
prominently used inclusive instructionalstrategiesthatrepresent
best practices in educating a diverse student population. The
methodsthat are particularly congruent with school counselors’
specialskillsets and positioning in the schoolinclude student collaboration and peer-mediated instruction,teaching responsibility,
peacemaking,self-determination, the use of technology, and the
use of supports and accommodations for curricular inclusion.
These techniques are important educational themes, and school
counselors can choose which methods seem to be best suited to
their unique interests and talents, as well as the strategies that
best match identified student needs. For example, the principle
ofstudent collaboration and peer-mediated instruction could be
implemented by using a peer-tutoring or peer-mentoring program
(Myrick, 2003)set up by the counselor within the school. Older
aged student tutors/mentors (e.g., students at least in Grade 2
for the elementary level) could assist in following up on the
school counselor–initiated classroom intervention. Another
natural inclusion practice for a counselor would be facilitating
responsibility, peacemaking, and self-determination components. Character education (Wittmer & Clark, 2002), morning classroom meetings (Kriete, 1999), and climate-building
strategies could be introduced through large-group sessions
and reinforced through small-group and individual classroom
interventions.The use oftechnology is often enhanced by school
counselors in classroom settings on a variety of educational
and career development topics. When the counselor can make
valuable and unique contributionsin educational and curricular
delivery in an inclusive classroom setting, the importance of
being a vital team player is reinforced and appreciated by the
various stakeholders.
We recommend the following steps in implementing an
individual or small-group classroom inclusion intervention.
They represent a compilation of various collaborative consultation models (Myrick, 2003; Stone & Dahir, 2006;
Wittmer & Clark, 2007). Students may be referred for a variety
of reasons to encompass academic and/or social-behavioral
concerns that may be keeping the student(s) and others in the
classroom from optimal achievement.
1. Referral of the student to the school counselor that
may come from a teacher, administrator, parent, or
self-referring student.
2. Identification ofthe problem; gathering information and
a review of available records; talking with stakeholders,
such as teacher(s), parents, and the administrator.
3. Classroom observation; observing child’s affective and
academic status as well asinteractions with teacher(s)
and peers.
4. Plan in-classintervention; what goals and steps you, as
the school counselor, hope to take. It will be optimal
Journal of Counseling & Development ■ Winter 2009 ■ Volume 87
School Counselor Inclusion: A Collaborative Model
to involve the teacher at this stage. It is important to
note the strengths of the student(s).
5. Implement intervention and modify as necessary.
This step may also include the infusion of peer tutoring/
mentoring to offer continued student support.
6. Develop a plan to leave with teacher and student(s)
for ongoing follow-up after the counselor finishes
the classroom intervention. This stage may include
reinforcements, system of feedback, and a protocol
to be followed.
7. Evaluate and monitor the intervention; the counselor
may want to check in with the student(s) and teacher
on a periodic basis or do a follow-up classroom observation. Student databases that are updated daily or
weekly at the school level are becoming more readily
accessible to school counselors and may be used to
monitor discipline referrals, absences, and grades.
Inworkingwithindividuals andgroupsofstudentsinthe classroomsetting,the counselor canmodel,demonstrate,motivate, and
coach studentsin such areas asself-management, conflict resolutionandangermanagement, cooperativepeerrelations,responsible
decision making, and organization and study skillsto bring about
needed changes.Such interventions can also contribute to a caring
and cohesive classroom environment where allstudents can work
to their potential (Wittmer & Clark, 2002; Zins et al., 2004).
Collaboration and consultation are considered to be effective
waysto reachmany studentsthrough the important adultsin their
lives, such as teachers, parents, and administrators. After the
work ofthe school counselorin the classroom is completed with
specific students,studentfollow-up can be of a collaborative consultative nature, where the teacher and school counselorteamup
to provide ongoing student support. Collaborative consultation,
whereby educators work together in an egalitarian way, is now a
consultation model that is optimally seen to fit a school setting
(Carpenter et al., 1998; Stone & Dahir, 2006). There seems to
be consensus among consultation experts that people are more
likely to implement change if they are involved in discussing
and contributing to the solutions (Dettmer, Thurston, & Dyck,
2004;Friend&Cook, 2003).Because oflarge counselor–student
caseloads, we assume that the nature of the school counselor
interventions in the classroom will be a brief, solution-focused
approach consisting oftwo to six sessions(Myrick, 2003).Itmay
be desirable for the counselor to do a follow-up observation at
some point after the classroom intervention has ended.
Example of School Counselor Inclusion
in the Classroom Setting
A conceptual framework of school counselor inclusion is
a pyramid model consisting of three tiers, representing the
traditional large-group guidance, small-group counseling,
and individual work, all taking place in a classroom setting. The tiered approach to academic and social-emotional
counseling interventions is seen often in both counseling
and special education literature (ASCA, 2005a; Kovaleski,
2003; V. V. Lee & Goodnough, 2007; Vaughn & Fuchs,
2003). As developmental classroom guidance specialists,
school counselors implement large-group lessons and programs as primary interventions to assist all students in their
academic, career, and personal-social development (ASCA,
2005a; Goodnough, Perusse, & Erford, 2007; Gysbers &
Henderson, 2006; Myrick, 2003). For example, counselors
may impart important educational and career information,
teach communication and conflict-resolution skills, assist
with study skills, orient students to new grade levels and
schools, and inform students of guidance and counseling
services available in schools as well as issues that may be
specific to individual schools (Myrick, 2003).
Small-group and individual work are also important
components of a comprehensive school counseling program
used to help students who are facing issues that interfere
with their personal, social, career, or academic development
(ASCA, 2005a; Gysbers & Henderson, 2006; Myrick, 2003).
Small groups can help members develop new resources and
skills that can address current issues as well as assist in the
prevention of future problems. Individual counseling is a
dyadic interaction between counselor and client that focuses
on the student’s problem or concern with the goal of helping the student make positive changes in coping, adapting,
or specific behaviors that are problematic (Brown & Trusty,
2005). Traditionally, small-group and individual counseling
have been conducted outside the classroom setting, usually
in a school counselor’s office or space allotted in the school
for small-group work. The school counselor inclusion model
pushes the implementation of small-group and individual
interventions into the classroom setting.
Implications for School Counselors
We believe that there are a number of benefits for a systemic
school counselor inclusion model. Interventions would take
place in a setting that would help studentsto bettertransfer new
skills to everyday situations. Classroom instruction would be
supported by the counselor and would not bemissed by students
being pulled out of class. Students would be able to practice
the skills in the classroom where they would naturally occur.
Intervening in the classroom would increase the likelihood of
the student behaviors being continued afterthe school counselor
intervention ends.This aspect is particularly importantfor academic and behavioral concerns for younger students who may
be unable to verbalize or conceptualize school success skills.
Many of these students may be happy to visit the counselor in
the office but may not be able to transfer the counseling session
content orskills being shared back to the classroom setting. For
many primary grade children, their concrete thinking and use
of simpler vocabulary can keep them from understanding and
applying the content of such office conferences.
An important part of counseling is assisting students to
make decisions that result in a change to more effective be-
10 Journal of Counseling & Development ■ Winter 2009 ■ Volume 87
Clark & Breman
haviors. If the school counselor can coach students in school
success skills in the classroom with regard to organization,
listening and responding in appropriate ways, cooperating with
peers, and completing class work and homework in a timely
manner, they are more likely to experience success in these
areas that can reinforce the application and reoccurrence of
these new behaviors. Even with older students, the opportunity to practice new skills, even if cognitively understood in
an individual counseling session, can be beneficial to making
these skills a part of a new repertoire of behavior.
Additionally, having a familiar adult in the classroom to
positively assist students can eliminate the stigma that some
children feel of being pulled out for special help and can
normalize the counseling experience. Teachers appreciate the
extra support and collaborative efforts by the counselorin what
might otherwise be a frustrating situation in working with
students who are struggling academically and/or behaviorally.
The entire classroom can benefit from having another adult
in the classroom to demonstrate and follow up on necessary
school success skills. Students who are not the target students
may also be exposed to some new ways of behaving and may
benefit indirectly, both as individuals and as a class. Teachers
can learn new approachesfromworking with school counselors,
and the counselors can observe and work with students in the
real world ofthe classroom rather than in a more isolated office
situation that may not foster goal development and application
as readily. Counselors and teachers can collaborate and support each others’ efforts to promote academic achievement
as well as social-emotional adjustment. They may also want
to consider working with other school team members, such
as a school psychologist or curricular specialist, to plan and
carry out interventions. Each has unique insights and skill sets
to contribute to a team effort, and each can contribute to the
instructional program in a school.
Individual and small-group work can be laborintensive, considering the number ofstudents being served, but it is anticipated
that the larger classroom will also benefit. Zins et al. (2004) presented evidence that linksschoolsuccessto social and emotional
learning and classroom climate. A caring, respectful classroom
environment can provide an atmosphere more conducive to, and
encouraging of, learning and achievement (Dodd, 2000; Elias et
al., 1997). A positive climate affects student achievement and
fosters problem-solving skills. Furthermore, by creating nurturing environments, children are increasingly encouraged to want
to come to school, thusimproving attendance and motivation to
learn (Glasser, 1997; Kohn, 1996).
It is anticipated that counselors would be able to develop
plansthat could be used repeatedly forstudent/classroomissues,
as is the case with small groups that are conducted in a pullout
manner. Thus, major themes such as school success skills,
organization, cooperating with othersin groups, completion of
work, classroom conduct, respect for self and others, dealing
with peer pressure, and good citizenship are examples ofthemes
that may be frequently addressed. Ultimately, it may be possible
to develop a grade-level or schoolwide plan that may encompass these important themes to school success, in an attempt
to “reach allstudents” asrequired by NCLB (2002), theASCA
(2004a) ethical standards, theASCA (2005a) National Model,
and counselors’own sense of purpose.With the strong national,
state, and local mandates that focus on NCLB, the increased
emphasis on increasing academic achievement levels, as well
as the provision of educational access and opportunities for all
students, it isimperative thatschool counselors devise new ways
of reaching students to help them be the best that they can be.
A school counselorinclusion modelfocusing on the classroom
setting that hasthe goal of benefiting every child and takesinto
account the diverse needs of the U.S. population with regard to
culture, race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status holds
a great deal of promise as school counselors look to creating a
bright future for all students.
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Challenges Dealing With Difficult Behaviors in Groups
Narrator: For those who lead groups, there are numerous challenges that invariably arise. Human diversity,
and the many behaviors that participants express in the group setting, make the process not always an easy
one for leaders. Segment one of this program will explore the “Challenges of Dealing with Dicult Behaviors in
Groups.” Segment two, will examine the “Challenges of Addressing Diversity Issues.” This program, consist of
short segments of work taken from a group that met for two full days.
Unlike the Corey’s documentary video, “The Evolution of a Group,” the scenarios in this program were role
played by participants, primarily from the transition stage of the group. Yet, at the process we are on, they
found themselves drawing on authentic feelings and experiences along the way.
Dr. Gerald Corey: In this particular video program, even though we are trying to demonstrate scenarios and
vignettes that are problematic and challenging for group leaders, I think you are going to see both a
combination of role play and reality.
Marianne Schneider Corey: This group is not to be compared to The Evolution of a Group where people did
bring up concerns and issues and diculties and we work with them.
Dr. Gerald Corey: I really hope that you do not think you have to be comfortable with conict or to even have
to know in advance how you will always deal with it, so many of my students say, “I am conict avoidant or
conict phobia, in terms of being so anxious about, ‘what will I do if a conict occurs?’” We can stay there and
talk, and even as group leaders, we do not have to have the answers in advance but we can let the group know
that we are struggling too.
Marianne Schneider Corey: I trust the group process that if I can get members to hang in there, we can get
somewhere, and that is the assurance I have. A lot of the diculties that we encounter sometimes in group
are due to the fact that we did not adequately prepare members. We did not adequately screen for a group. A
lot of people ended up in a group that should not be there, that the group is contrary indicated for them. That
is one important guideline.
The other one, I think, I have said maybe already and that is, to be respectful, to make sure that no one in my
group is a casualty, that people do not attack one another, that they speak for themselves, that they do not
blame other people, and make them responsible for their struggles and for their diculties. Always paying
attention to how is the message being delivered.
Dr. Gerald Corey: Without blaming ourselves, I think it does help to say, “What is my part, as a group facilitator,
in the resistance or reluctance or whatever is taking place in the group that I might say, “Gee, we are having
problems right now.”
Marianne Schneider Corey: Each group is dierent and they have their own personality and each group
evolves dierently, so I want to be very open. Citation Credits
12/6/2019 Challenges Facing Group Leaders 2/19
Dr. Gerald Corey: But I think it is always important to see that maybe a group is a reection of my own
attitudes, my own enthusiasm, or maybe my lack of enthusiasm, or maybe what I am brining into the group.
We did have a list of scenarios that we wanted to put on the agenda that you will be seeing in this particular
program. The idea is not to give you the nal answer, but just to raise more questions about how you might
approach thinking about and working through these issues.
Segment One:
Narrator: The group has been meeting for several sessions. In the previous session, there was conict, and
many of the members expressed the great deal of reluctance to continue attending the group.
Marianne Schneider Corey: This is a really crucial moment for us in the group, in terms of how will we continue
on, and I really hope that each one of you make some comment even if you say, “I really do not have much to
say,” but at least, hear your voice.
01: Checking in: What was it like to return to group?
Narrator: The Corey’s checking with all group members to get a sense of what they are bringing to the session.
This is an important step before pursuing in depth work with any participant.
Galo: I wonder why we have to come here, when I do anything. You guys did not protect me and you left me
out there. People were coming down on me, so I thought, Why do I want to go somewhere where people are
going to be putting me down and not protecting me?
Marianne Schneider Corey: Are you aware, Galo, in other people that were putting you down?
02: The leaders let me down
Galo: I thought that Jerry was putting me down. I was not being a good enough group participant.
Dr. Gerald Corey: Is that something you are willing to come back to, after we have checked out with
Galo: Let me think about it.
Dr. Gerald Corey: Yeah. Well, I hope you would. I think you took a very important step. You identied me,
particularly. I certainly want to explore that more fully.
Marianne Schneider Corey: I wonder if anybody else felt that way, what Galo is saying. That in someway you
brought yourself in, you did not feel protected?
Vivian: I felt like, if Galo is going to be put down, I feel like if I speak up, something like that might happen to
me too, so I am more cautious in what I am going to say or do in the group.
Marianne Schneider Corey: Do you have an awareness, who in the room, in particular, you have to be cautious
with? You might not want to identify them even right now, but if you agree to work on that to be aware who
these people are and who you may need to talk to?
Vivian: Sure, but not now though.
Marianne Schneider Corey: Okay.
Dr. Gerald Corey: You said, “You were feeling cautious.” Is that something you are okay with or is that
something you would like to have it dierent?
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Vivian: I think I am okay with it, but I want to share a little bit about myself but not too much, so I am still a little
bit cautious.
Dr. Gerald Corey: You are willing to explore more with what is making you cautious?
Vivian: Maybe.
Dr. Gerald Corey: Maybe.
Vivian: Yeah, maybe.
Marianne Schneider Corey: For both of you, if you have to make a decision right now, in terms of talking more
and bringing yourself out while exploring that, where would you be? On the scale from one to 10, Galo, in
terms of moving forward or kind of retreating, where would you be at this moment?
Galo: Maybe a ve.
Marianne Schneider Corey: A ve. How about Vivian?
Vivian: For me, maybe a three.
Narrator: Having the members talk about their hesitations and diculties, pertaining to be in the group, is
crucial to developing trust, a tedious but necessary process.
Dr. Gerald Corey: I want to really encourage you to talk more about, “What is like to be in a place that you did
not really want to be in and that you do not feel you t,” because I heard you said, “I do not belong.” I heard
you say that you feel cautious and you feel let down, that is the material I hope you will say more about
because I think that is what contributed to our feeling a sense of being stuck last week, that I think there are a
lot of things going on that you are not saying.
Toni: I do not trust anybody in here.
Dr. Gerald Corey: Nobody?
03: I am not feeling safe in here
Toni: Nobody. I do not feel like it is safe to talk about anything that is personal because I do not trust that
when I walk out of this room that something is not going to be said that was said in here and that is very
important to me.
Dr. Gerald Corey: Let me just check one thing and we can explore this further after the checking, but is that
any dierent than it is in your outside world? Do you nd that you trust a lot of people in your everyday life?
Toni: No, I do not trust. It is very hard to build trust.
Dr. Gerald Corey: Is that something that you want to change in your life?
Toni: Well yeah, because I want to feel safe.
Dr. Gerald Corey: You would like to feel safer than you do in this group? Are you willing to talk more at least
about how you feel not safe in here?
Toni: I could try.
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04: I did not want to come back to group
Joel: Well, I was reluctant to come back this week because I felt that, last week, I shared a lot, and I was not
feeling really guilty of the stu that I shared last week and I did not know if I could trust people in here. I did
not know what the reactions I was going to get, so I was a little bit scared of coming back.
Nicole: I am a little bit reluctant to talk too. I was really excited about the group originally in working and it is
just hard for me now to open up knowing that people do not want to be here and that there is not trust in the
room, especially people not wanting to be here, it makes me feel like, “Well, then I do not want to share
because you do not care if I am going to share anyway,” so I am just not going to say anything at all.
Maria: When I come back, it is like I do not belong here. It is so hard for me to be here, but I feel so dierent.
Marianne Schneider Corey: That sense of feeling dierent, do you have that with all of us, each one of us, or is
there some that you have it more than with others?
Maria: Well, Toni and Nadine, the way they speak is so perfect and the way they speak kind of their feelings
and you do not trust me, and I feel guilty because I think, “Oh, maybe he does not trust me because I did not
say anything last session.” I did not say nothing because I felt like you were going to judge me because of the
way I speak.
Dr. Gerald Corey: Maybe that is the thing you can say more of in this session.
Maria: Sounds good.
Narrator: The unwillingness to participate can be expected at an early stage, especially with involuntary group
05: I am in this group against my will
Nadine: I will say that I feel this group is beneath me, but I do not feel like I really belong here, so therefore, I
have not really been interacting because I would not know what to say in a group like this because I was only,
“Sit here. I had to come here.”
Marianne Schneider Corey: Are you willing to talk with more about what it is like for you to be in a place where
you do not want to be?
Nadine: I do not really see any point in it, but I do not know what may happen. I am just here because the
program that I am in said that, “If I want to continue my program, I had to attend a group.”
George: I am just here because I have to be here. I do not really think I need to be in a therapy, it is not me, but
it is an ultimatum I got in my marriage so I am here, so maybe there is some truth to that and I have no
reaction about Joel saying the same thing about not feeling safe with the men, and I feel like maybe I might be
somewhat responsible for some of that, but I am just here because I have to be here. I did not feel like coming
back either because it is not comfortable sitting here, not feeling like I can even become part of the group
because I do not want to become a part of the group.
Marianne Schneider Corey: You agreed to come. What would happen if you did not come? What happens if
you discontinue?
George: I have to go home and face the ultimatum at home.
Marianne Schneider Corey: Yeah. You would rather be here than face the ultimatum?
12/6/2019 Challenges Facing Group Leaders 5/19
George: If you phrase it that way, yeah, because I am here, I will just say, “I must.”
Marianne Schneider Corey: Nobody is dragging you in here.
George: Yeah. I came on my own and I must, but I come reluctantly.
Dr. Gerald Corey: You are both at least saying, “I am not sure, I want anything here, and I have been sent, and
it is really sort of against my will.” I am hoping you are both going to talk more about what that is like. Maybe
you would be open to perhaps revising that.
Marianne Schneider Corey: George and Nadine, both of you are saying about not wanting to be here and I
really have a lot of concerns for you to continue to come here if you do not want to be here. I do not think this
is going to be good for you. If you are coming to a place you do not want to be, to continue and not to see any
value in that, I would hope you take care of yourself and not to continue this group. I think you really need to
see, “Is there something here that could be helpful to me?”
Narrator: As the group progresses, trust continues to be a major issue.
Nadine: Well, can I tell you what my fear is?
Marianne Schneider Corey: I hope you would. Maybe you might share with the rest of us.
Nadine Well, I am not normally a client, and being a client and being in this position, I am afraid that if I open
myself up and people get to know me as a person as opposed to a therapist, then when they see me in a
professional arena or see me in the public, they will be laughing and saying, “How can she help anybody, she is
a client?”
Galo: I feel the same way too about what George said, if he does not care what we have to say, then why even
talk? I am sharing about my private life and what is going on and he does not even care, then why should I
even say anything?
Nicole: I felt like I will respect you more if you give a little bit of yourself. By you shutting down, I do not respect
Joel: I was strictly aware last week of all the males in the group who wanted to feel accepted or wanted to feel
not wanted to be judged by like the males in the group, and I now feel that you are judging me.
Marianne Schneider Corey: How is it for you to hear that?
George: I think what I am feeling right now is this connection to what it is like at home and maybe the
connection is, that is why I am here because I do not listen or because I do not care.
Dr. Gerald Corey: Maybe that is an opening. Maybe you could learn something in this group that might help
you see more about how you function at home and in other settings.
Narrator: Genuine feedback and encouragement from members and leaders can help involuntary members to
become more involved.
George: I am learning. I am learning something about myself right now, that my words can be that strong, and
I am feeling there is no way, I can get through this without participating if I am going to have an eect on you.
Marianne Schneider Corey: How is that for you to you have that recognition?
12/6/2019 Challenges Facing Group Leaders 6/19
George: A little scary, but it is kind of, what is the word?, kind of freeing at the same time just to recognize that
there is the possibility I can learn something, and I already have just in this last interaction with you and
particularly with you Galo, when you just confronted me straight on. I did not realize that my words had that
much impact until you were able to tell me, and so maybe at home, I will not go lock myself in the oce,
maybe at home I can sit there and hear it out.
Joel: I also appreciate your sharing George, especially you being a male, I feel that was my biggest concern, and
my fear was that if I became emotional where I shared a lot that I was going to be judged by you, by Galo, as a
weak person, and now that you have shared a portion about yourself, now I feel that I can share about myself
too and not feel guilty or feel being judged. I have never seen a male in my life show emotion, so that is why I
feel a good connection with you right now in this moment because now you have taught me something.
Marianne Schneider Corey: If you had to make a decision right now at this moment about continuing with this
group or dealing with the consequences if you do not, where do you think you would be?
George: I would like to continue coming. I think now the shift is that, I think, I want to continue coming because
of what is happening for me right now, but at the same time, there is kind of like a paradox in that, in showing
these emotions, part of me wants to run away too, but something real powerful, just real strong just happened
just now.
Marianne Schneider Corey: I hope you remember, you started out talking, “I do not want to be here,” that was
the very important step to take, and anyone of you I see, in terms of what just happened – the shift, if you start
talking, what is making it dicult, you have a better chance to get somewhere else, than if you do not say
anything at all.
Narrator: Sometimes, a group member is uncomfortable with other member’s emotions.
06: Emotions make me uncomfortable
Vivian: I feel uncomfortable because I see Maria having some tears and I feel like I do not want her to feel like
that, and when George was just talking, I felt a little bit tensed because I am not used to all of these emotion
going on. I know I am put o by some of the emotion that goes on because I am not used to seeing people cry.
Dr. Gerald Corey: What is it like to see Maria tear up and George tear up for you?
Vivian: I want to stop it. I want to give her a tissue or something to make her stop or make her feel better
because I do not —
Dr. Gerald Corey: Maybe tell that to Maria.
Vivian: Well, I do not want you to feel someone is judging you or for you to cry. I do not want that, so hopefully
you feel better. Yeah.
Maria: Thank you.
Marianne Schneider Corey: Toni was talking about not trusting people. Did she evoke anything in you?
Vivian: I guess I feel the same way too, that I do not very much trust people in here also, so I relate to you a
little bit.
Marianne Schneider Corey: Okay. Having tears would be one way, you would not want to trust us with tears
because that is not something you normally show.
12/6/2019 Challenges Facing Group Leaders 7/19
Toni: You triggered something in me when you said there is wall because I hear that all the time, that I have
this big wall. I am trying to open the wall a little bit or bring it one brick down, but I do not know if I can do that.
Marianne Schneider Corey: It sounds like right now you are doing some of that, by talking, and involving
yourself with people, but I want you to go around and tell each person something you need from them that
makes it safer for you to talk and maybe to let down a bit of that wall.
Narrator: Toni completes a go-around and telling the members what she wants from them. Group members
continued to share their diculty in communicating with each other.
07: I am self-conscious about my accent
Maria: Everything you said, so every time I said something, I feel that, “I wish I could speak like you,” because I
do not, I feel so uncomfortable, especially when I speak and you are looking at me.
Nicole: See, this is why I do not even want to talk because now it is all coming back on me. You are
uncomfortable, so it is my fault, and I am going to judge you. That is why I did not want to come today. Just
lstu like that.
Marianne Schneider Corey: Yeah. You could withdraw right now, Nicole.
Nicole: Yes. Yeah, because that is Maria’s thing, not my thing. I think I listened to you Maria just like I listened to
everybody else. I do not think I treat you any dierent, so I do not understand why that comes from me, you
feel that way for me.
Maria: Do you understand when I speak, do you understand? I have the feeling that sometimes I said
something that you do not understand and instead of asking me, can you repeat that again because on my
accent sometimes, I mispronounce the words, and I know that I do, I am aware of that, but some people, they
know that I did and they do not care and I feel that it is just I am caring from you.
Nicole: I have been in a position similar to this before, and it seems like sometimes when you ask people who –
– English is their second language, to say something again, they get oended, so maybe, I have done that to
you, maybe I have not understood, and I have not asked because I am afraid you are going to get oended I
me not understanding you the rst time.
Marianne Schneider Corey: Would it be all right for her to ask you, Maria?
Maria: Oh, yes, absolutely. Actually, that is way I am here in this group, to get over it this fear that I have is a big
fear that is stopping to do many things in my life.
Narrator: The group leaders asked members to continue to express their reactions.
Galo: It is not because she is female, it is because if he was giving me the attitude, I would not like it either, and
her the same, well, yeah, no, whatever, just like she does not care, and you see he is trying to talk to her and
she is just like, “I do not care attitude.”
Marianne Schneider Corey: Maybe look again at Nicole and talk to Nicole directly.
Galo: I do not want to look at Nicole right now. I cannot even see her from here.
Nicole: You see, now you are doing the same thing he is doing.
Galo: Well, because like I said, I just do not want to do it that way.
12/6/2019 Challenges Facing Group Leaders 8/19
Joel: See, only girls do that —
Marianne Schneider Corey: I think that would be, again, Galo —
Dr. Gerald Corey: That is the very thing. You said, “I am too angry,” and I hope you do not brush that under the
carpet. Maybe stay there, even though you do not want to, just for a bit, and let her know what you are angry
about. Talk to her direct.
Galo: I do not like when you go, “I do not care.” When you give your — do something, I do not know, it just
makes me feel that just an attitude about you that — I do not know. It just rubs me to the wrong way, maybe it
is just me, I do not know, but I feel that you do not care about me or about George when he is talking to you,
when I am saying something and you have that ippant attitude where it is like —
Marianne Schneider Corey: Tell her what you need from her.
Galo: I guess that you just try to listen and maybe curb down your attitude, I guess.
Marianne Schneider Corey: Are you having any sense on what he is saying to you about your attitude?
Nicole: Yeah, I guess so.
Marianne Schneider Corey: You do?
Nicole: Yeah.
Marianne Schneider Corey: You understood what he was saying to you? What did you hear him say?
Nicole: Well, the part that I am not caring, I do care, but I could see how you could pick up that I do not care
because of that — that kind of stu.
Galo: That is exactly.
Nicole: I understand that.
Galo: That is it.
Narrator: Sometimes in a group setting, there is a pressure for leaders to self-disclose.
08: I want the leaders to disclose more
Nicole: I just feel like, we are all supposed to share in this group and some people did not want to and now
they are going to, and some people are working on walls and we are all expected to be personal, and I do not
hear anything from you, group leaders. I do not hear you giving us any personal stu, so what makes you
Joel: I second that too.
Nicole: Yeah.
Dr. Gerald Corey: Right. You know, you are not going to hear a whole lot from me in terms of personal stu
outside of the group because I have a dierent role in here and a dierent function. I do hope I will talk about
how I am experiencing the group and how I am relating to you, so if you are feeling you are not getting enough
12/6/2019 Challenges Facing Group Leaders 9/19
of me in relationship to you, I want to change that, but you are right, I am not going to be just another member
because I have a dierent job.
Marianne Schneider Corey: The same is true for me. I want to be very personal but you probably will not learn
a lot about my personal problems, but I will give you my personal reactions. In some way, you will learn a lot
from me as the group goes on. It is for a dierent function, so I hope that kind of helps you all.
Narrator: The group leaders continue reacting to the member’s pressures for the leaders to self-disclose.
Marianne Schneider Corey: Several of you have said, “You do not share enough of yourself.” The slight
dierence is that I may not talk about my problems, you might trigger something in me about my own past,
but I hope it would not get in my way that I so much pay attention to myself that I no longer can pay attention
to you. My role is to pay attention to you, but I do pay attention how you aect me and that I am very willing to
share with anyone of you.
Dr. Gerald Corey: I would hope that if that becomes ongoing in your presence that you let me know if you are
having reactions. I am getting in your way in anyway because the last thing I want to do is get in your way.
What I most want is to help you get what you say you want when you came here.
Narrator: Quiet members can aect the trust level in a group and leaders need to explore the meaning for
their silence.
09: I learn a lot by being quiet
Vivian: I am cautious to what I say because like you said, “There are consequences,” so I do not like those
consequences. I do not know what it is.
Marianne Schneider Corey: I hope you would let nobody pressure you into doing something that does not feel
right for you and that you do not want to do, and be very clear, what are your goals for yourself in this group. I
think members will have reactions to you, as they do, when you do not share certain parts of you. The more
important part is, did you take care of yourself of how much you want to do and so you do not have regrets
about what you did, and if you do go too far that you also talk about your regrets.
Vivian: I do not know. I was taken o by you Jerry that you said, “There are consequences for me not talking,”
and I really feel uncomfortable with that.
Dr. Gerald Corey: I think what I was thinking about when there are consequences, if you go through the group
and do all your work quietly. I do not know what is going on. It is going to be hard to work with you. I would
like you do more what you have been doing by telling people that you are uncomfortable with tears, it is hard
for you to get in, it is hard for you to speak, and when you do, other people come in, you wondering if you are
Marianne Schneider Corey: How does that sound to you? What Jerry is saying.
Vivian: It sounds good.
Marianne Schneider Corey: That is something that you would want to do?
Vivian: Yeah.
Marianne Schneider Corey: I think that the fact that everybody right now is listening to you, it looks like that,
maybe you take an opportunity to maybe say something to each person here, something that you would want
them to hear about you. How would that be for you?
12/6/2019 Challenges Facing Group Leaders 10/19
Vivian: Everybody?
Narrator: The focus shifts to a group member who still feels left out.
Galo: I guess I just felt that everyone had an opportunity to talk about what was going on, what they brought
up, and I did not get an opportunity.
Marianne Schneider Corey: What kept you from having that opportunity?
Galo: I guess I did not want to take others people’s time.
Marianne Schneider Corey: Is that something that you struggle with, away from here, as well?
Galo: Yeah. I tend to care for other people’s needs more than I do my own.
Marianne Schneider Corey: That would be a good place to start next week, “I tend to care for other people’s
feelings more than for my own.”
Dr. Gerald Corey: Think about it for a week that you could say, “I want to claim some time,” because I am
hearing you say, “You would like to and it is hard.”
Galo: Yeah. I would like to, but it is scary for me to do so. It is scary for me to just — I want you guys to call on
me. I want you guys to say, “Well, Galo, what would you like to say now?”
Commentary: Dr. Gerald Corey: It would be easy to call on you, but I will tell you why I am reluctant to do so
because when I am not here, if I call on you, will you bring yourself in? I want to really encourage you, very
much, to at least take the rst step and say, “I would like some time.” My guess is, you can give a lot to this
group by taking time.
Commentary: Dr. Gerald Corey: In this last session, I certainly was not easy for me to hear as we went around
the room and each person said, “Well, I do not want to come back here. I did not feel trusting. I am not sure I
want to be here. I do not feel listened to,” That was hard and yet, it was harder when people were not saying
those things. I want people to talk more about, “What it is like not to trust? What it is like to have thoughts
about not wanting to show up here again? What it is like to be sent here?” When the members are doing that, I
am feeling we are making movement, and I do not have an agenda that they would be in any place other than
they are.
Marianne Schneider Corey: The fact that they did come back, that is a very big step for anyone of them, and I
want to really acknowledge that, that that was really honoring the group by simply not showing up, which
anyone of them could have done, so I know there is a willingness for them to work and want to be here, even if
they say at times, “They do not want to be here.” The goal is, “How can I get each one of them to feel safe
enough to talk?” If I have the agreement they are coming back, I have trust in the process that we can continue
to resolve whatever diculties that might be there.
Dr. Gerald Corey: There are so many dierent ways too of intervening and I want to say very much that, “There
is no one right way,” and this group could have gone in so many dierent directions and yet, I think what I am
trying to do is pay attention to what seems salient in at the moment, and how can you get people to talk more.
Marianne Schneider Corey: See, the talking more, in terms of techniques, there are not a lot of techniques I
want to use at this time, the most important technique is, “Can I motivate the members to talk? Can I help
them to make it more safe for them to talk, especially the ones who nd it so dicult and are scared and not
12/6/2019 Challenges Facing Group Leaders 11/19
Dr. Gerald Corey: So when a member says, “I want you to call on me because it is easier and it is hard for me to
take time or in my family, I could not talk.” That is the very thing that I hope you will start with and talk about
what makes it dicult in here. You said, “It is scary in here.” Are you willing to talk more about that? You say, “It
is hard for you to take time. I am afraid I will cheat others.” Are you willing to talk about that? See, that is the
material that I think will open each member up more. Talking about what is dicult.
Marianne Schneider Corey: Sometimes, people in the group want us to call on them, and our preference is
that, we teach the members early on to bring themselves in when they are aected, especially if a member
wants to learn to take better care for him or herself, then for sure, I do not serve them well if I constantly bring
them in or call them by name and tell them to work because that is the issue they want to work with. I like to
pay attention to the kind of words I use to describe a group. I want to give more and more way from saying,
“They are resistant, they are stuck, or whatever,” and to really appreciate the diculty where they are getting
together and they are talking about very dicult personal things in their lives, and that is scary for many, and I
really want to appreciate that and move slowly and make it say for them that they can do that and by saying to
them they are resistant, they are dicult I think I will only create more diculty and more resistance in them,
and I think if I can describe a member, instead of saying, “He is resistant.” I say, “That person is really scared.
They are really struggling.” I think it evokes the whole dierent feeling of compassion for me into
interventions, I will choose to use for that person.
Dr. Gerald Corey: Other thing that I constantly want to ask a member who says something, “Is this okay by
you? Would you like something dierent?” If a member says, “I am closed o.” I want to know, “Would you like
to be dierent than you are?” I do not trust. “Would you like to be more trusting?” That is more important in
me deciding that you should be the way I think you should be.
Narrator: As the session continues, the Corey’s encourage the participants to explore their diculties with one
Dr. Gerald Corey: So who else is ready to do more?
Marianne Schneider Corey: I wonder what makes it dicult to speak up. What is the hesitation? What is going
on? What is it like being here right now?
10: Silence serves a function
Joel: I feel that you are asking too many questions and I just do not like it.
Marianne Schneider Corey: Could you let me know how I could be more helpful for you? What it is you would
need for me to be helpful to you?
Joel: Just leave me alone.
Marianne Schneider Corey: Is that your goal for the group, do you think?
11: I feel pressured to disclose
Joel: I will go at my own pace. I feel like you are forcing me to say stu or to go to places that I do not want to
go to.
Marianne Schneider Corey: Okay. I am very much want to hear that part. If I am moving faster than you want
to go, I really want to respect that, but I will continue to be interested in you and want to work with you, but
also, listen too, when you think I am going too far and you need to let me know then we can explore, how
come you want to stop at that moment?
12/6/2019 Challenges Facing Group Leaders 12/19
Joel: It just feels that when you guys ask, especially you Jerry, when you asked about, “Oh, can you say more? I
really want you to say something or I encourage you,” those phrases, I do not like them. I feel that you are
pressuring me to say something that I do not want to.
Nadine: What is it that you feel leaders are supposed to do in the group?
Dr. Gerald Corey: How was it to hear that question from Nadine?
Joel: I am starting to feel that she is taking your side.
Dr. Gerald Corey: Now, there are three of us.
Joel: Yeah.
Narrator: Another challenge to group leaders occurs when a member takes on the role of a co-leader.
Nadine: Well, I am hearing Joel say that you are asking him questions, when it appears to me that that is the
point of the leaders is to ask a question and to prompt the members to actually bring forth whatever it is you
need to bring forth, and why is he here if he does not want to work on it?
Nicole: Nadine, it makes me feel like you do not want to be one in the group members. You want to be a
leader. You just want to be the boss of all of us and it makes me feel like I have to answer to you in the group
Dr. Gerald Corey: What is that like when you have to answer to somebody else?
Nicole: I just do not think that you have the right to ask me a question and stu. It puts me on the spot.
Marianne Schneider Corey: Several times now, people have said to you, Nadine, that you bring yourself in as a
leader. Do you have any observation about that?
Nadine: Well, that is not the way I feel when I do it. It is just an observation I make.
Marianne Schneider Corey: You have some very good observations, but what is missing a lot of times is
yourself. You bringing yourself in, with some of the things that you said were dicult for you to deal with.
Nicole: Nadine, I like it more when you just talk about you and you do not turn it around like on me or on Joel
and try to lead us down some path. I like to just hear “you” because then I can know you better. The more I
hear from you, the more I feel that you may understand me because we might have common interests or
common experiences.
Nadine: Okay. When I respond to you the way I do, it is because maybe I feel like I understand something that
you do not and I can maybe let you see it from my point of view.
Marianne Schneider Corey: See, that might very well be the case, but you came here for a dierent reason. You
came here to learn also a lot about Nadine, and you keep yourself out very often. You are more interested in
anyone of us than in yourself.
Toni: Do not you feel attacked by what she just said to you?
13: Can we not stop all of this conict?
Marian: So, let me check Toni. Rather than maybe putting it onto Nicole what has just happened for you?
12/6/2019 Challenges Facing Group Leaders 13/19
Toni: Well, I felt like I needed to stand up and protect her because she was attacking her.
Marian: So, do you have something to say to Nadine for yourself?
Toni: Well, it sounded very attacking, like you were attacking her like you are better than her. You know
something better.
Nadine: I was not attacking her.
Nicole: That is just what you said.
Toni: It sounded just like that.
Nicole: You did say that.
Narrator: When conicts exist, leaders must carefully monitor the member’s interactions. Leaders need to
challenge members to keep the focus on how they are being aected rather than blaming others for what they
are feeling.
Joel: It feels like the group is starting to split whoever – like you guys are starting to be questioning.
Nadine: But I was not attacking her. I was just trying to explain myself.
George: Leave me out to this man, because when you say, “You guys” you are pointing in this direction I feel
like I am being singled out. I do not even want to be in here right now there is just too much going on, too
tense. I do not like the tension.
Joel: See and then all of the questions that you ask us, why do you not do something about this? I feel that
there is tension in the room and you are just letting it go.
George: All this bickering back and forth I mean, cannot you guys do something about that?
Marianne Schneider Corey: Well, I hear Nadine’s tone and I think it is soft spoken. She is trying to explain
herself. It is not high-pitched like you and Nicole here.
Toni: Now, why are you standing up for her?
Marianne Schneider Corey: Well, because I feel like you are attacking her. I mean being friends with her, so I
have to save Nadine also.
Toni: She was attacking her.
Nadine: I was not attacking her, but you have just as much right to ask me a question as I do with you. Is that
not why we are here for, to help each other?
Toni: Well, I do not think you were asking a question. You were saying you know better than she does.
Marian: How come this is happening right now? What is going on for each one of you?
Marianne Schneider Corey: Well, I do not even know what the subject is anymore. I am kind of lost in all the
12/6/2019 Challenges Facing Group Leaders 14/19
Maria: I feel that you guys spend too much time on her. The focus is on her. I mean we spent about like the
last half an hour just talking on her issue. I just feel like, “Okay, ne.”
Joel: What I – I feel like when you ask questions and now you Nadine, Jeremy and Marian, I feel I am being
questioned and I am being reprimanded.
Marianne Schneider Corey: I feel like there is no work being done. It is just people going against one another
and I do not think this is what it is all about. So, I kind of feel like it is putting me o and not giving myself a
chance to do work or to talk about other issues besides conicts that we are having right now. So, I do not
even know what –
Marian: But sometimes what happens I think if you talk about the conicts we try to get what is bringing up,
what is bringing that conict on. How come all a sudden there is all this energy where people are irritated with
one another, impatient with one another. And I think it is important like to keep talking, we do not know where
we are going to go. All we know right now this feels tense, people are not listening to one another and it does
not feel good to be here. So, how can we continue, we could stop – what the heck with all of this. But I think
that is not why we came here, so how we can we continue talking and especially listening to one another and
certainly more what is going on with me that makes it dicult for me to be here right now. So, anybody willing
to say something about that, what is it like for you to be here?
Marianne Schneider Corey: Well, I just do not like the conict. And when I do see conict I try to – kind of
people rescue or try to not have conict at all, resolve it in some way. And so, I just feel uncomfortable when
that happens and normally I do not know what to do when that happens either.
Marian: That is something you said you want to work more on. Who do you feel conict with and you would
like to get better in resolving it? You could decide, “I do not want to deal with that. I want to get away from
them.” But you said something very dierent that you wanted to get better at sticking it out when there is
Narrator: Again, the leaders used the group process as a way to understand and explore the conict.
Marian: Uncomfortably as it is as long as we keep talking and trying to check in what is happening to me, why
are my needs not being met, I can get a better sense what is it that I am doing that is not helpful to you. Any
reactions, anybody who wants to say anything about in terms of what I have said.
Nicole: Kind of something that clicked with me with Nadine is she kind of reminded me of my parents. They
always ask a lot of questions and gave a lot of advice but never gave a lot of themselves personally.
Maria: So, could you let Nadine known why it is not helpful to you?
Nicole: Because as soon as I hear somebody coming at me with their advice or their questions it just makes me
shut down because I feel once again I am sitting in front of my parent instead of my peer and sharing as a
friend. I feel like it is a one way conversation.
Marian: Nicole is saying, “I am not feeling helped.” Can you hear Nicole or anyone else that has said that to you
what they might want from you, how they can be helped by you. Can you hear that Nadine?
Nadine: I can hear it. But I would like to hear a little bit more about what it is that you need from me.
Nicole: I have been telling you, I just need to hear you and about you.
Marian: And why would that be important to you?
12/6/2019 Challenges Facing Group Leaders 15/19
Nicole: Because then you are sitting on the same level that I am instead of being up here like my mom or dad,
you are just being right here as a friend and I can hear you better that way.
Nadine: It is hard for me to give of myself that way. That is what I am here to learn to do and maybe you can
help me.
Marian: Do you experience her right now dierent?
Nicole: Kind of, a little bit, but not completely because I still feel like she is not taking responsibility.
Marian: But you are going to go for little successes here. So, can you acknowledge the fact that at this moment
at least she moved a little bit more into the direction of what you would hope you would get from Nadine?
That she is saying, “I am struggling with this, I need your help” rather than being – as you said earlier that she is
a leader.
Nicole: Yeah.
Marian: Do you see Nadine doing any of that?
Nicole: I do not know how I can help but yeah.
Marian: I think that is the dilemma you are in. You want to be very helpful yet several people tell you you are
not? So, for you to listen more, what is it that I am doing that the very thing I intend to do is not being received.
Dr. Gerald Corey: I want to get back to that xing thing though because I remember you saying how you feel
worn out a lot in your life. You say you try to x everything. Are you very successful at that; of xing problems?
Nadine: Sometimes.
Dr. Gerald Corey: Sometimes.
Nadine: Sometimes.
Dr. Gerald Corey: I think what I am asking is more of like, is it working? And if xing things is not working then
maybe there are ways to learn a dierent way of being.
Marian: I mean, do you want to change that?
Nadine: Yes, because it is painful to not be able to x.
Marian: So, maybe tell a few people that it is painful for me not to be able to x. Maybe you look at Joel and
maybe say something, “It is painful for me not to be able to x you because…”
Nadine: It is painful for me to not be able to help you resolve issues that hurt you.
Marianne Schneider Corey: Because?
Nadine: Because I hate seeing pain.
Marian: Maybe you want tell somebody else; it is painful for me –
12/6/2019 Challenges Facing Group Leaders 16/19
Nadine: It is painful for me to see you respond to me the way you do because I have such an overwhelming
desire to help you resolve your issues and I do realize it is not my responsibility.
Nicole: And I appreciate that.
Marian: And you had some reactions in terms of some of the stu that was going on.
Galo: I think because hearing you say that, it is really hard for you to express your feelings or talking the other
way, it helps me see why you do what you do.
Narrator: As a result of not bypassing conict and continuing to talk, members begin to have a better
understanding for each other.
Dr. Gerald Corey: You have reactions and feelings that occur in this group and sometimes you do not go with
that part, you want to think about it. And maybe what might be helpful is to allow yourself to say what feelings
are coming up for you. Do you know what I mean, rather than always having to make sense of it rst?
Marianne Schneider Corey: Okay.
Marian: Is that something you want to change what he is proposing? Watch out, watch out for him. He is
proposing something to you.
Marianne Schneider Corey: Yeah.
Marian: I am really concerned that you pay close attention to, what is it that is important to you that you would
want to change?
Marianne Schneider Corey: Well, it takes me a little bit longer to feel safe in order to just have my feelings out.
So, that is how I have been functioning is just to think rst and then feel later. You know even like with Maria I
was trying to connect with her but my way of connecting is just to intellectualize with her and to understand
her that way.
Marian: So, continue talking and maybe say more about that to the dierent people here.
Marianne Schneider Corey: Well Maria, what works for me is that when I do actually question is a way for me
to try to understand you; it is not a way for me to cut you o in anyway. And if I did stop you from thinking
what you were trying to say, I apologize but that is not my intention.
Marian: How about with Toni?
Marianne Schneider Corey: With you Toni, not knowing my background, not knowing my personality you just
assume that I am always intellectualizing and not feeling and to me, that is not fair that I want to wear my
feelings on my sleeves all the time, so that is why I have to intellectualize but I am moving towards that stu
but it is going to take me a while to get there. That feels right for me to do it slowly.
Narrator: As the group continues, other members have issues with each other.
Maria: It makes me feel that you are not listening to what we are saying, therefore I am not going to listen to
you when talk.
Galo: That is ne.
12/6/2019 Challenges Facing Group Leaders 17/19
Dr. Gerald Corey: Is it really ne Galo? It is? Uh-huh, that is ne. Is there something else?
Galo: Well, because that is what I get at home all the time.
Dr. Gerald Corey: What is that?
Galo: That people do not listen to me. I do not listen to my parents and they do not listen to me so I do not –
you guys do not have to listen to me if you do not want to be either; that is ne.
Dr. Gerald Corey: Is it really though? Is it ne to be in this group and people not listen to you?
14: I feel weak when I show feelings
Galo: I want to be listened to but it is like, if I ask people to listen to me I feel like that is being weak or that is
being – that is kind of a girly thing for me to do, to feel or to care what other people think about me.
Marian: Galo, would you be willing to say a bit more about what it is like for you when you hear people that
you are silent and they have not heard from you. People have pointed out to you that they would like to hear
more from you. And we want you to checkout with some of the members here what it is like for them to be
with you when you are quiet. Would that be all right for you?
Galo: That is kind of scary the checking out part.
Marian: What would be less scary right now?
Galo: I guess just talking about how –I felt like I never had a voice at home, my opinion was never respected.
Showing feelings and emotions is a sign of weakness for me. So, it is like I am putting myself out there and I do
not know.
Dr. Gerald Corey: So, somebody told you that it is a sign of weakness?
Galo: Oh yeah.
Dr. Gerald Corey: Who?
Galo: Dierent men in my family that you are not suppose to ask for help or show feelings because that is a
sign of weakness.
Dr. Gerald Corey: At this moment, do you believe that it is a sign of weakness to ask for help?
Galo: I do but then it feels good to say it though. It feels good to let that emotion out and not be the silent one
anymore. Instead of just sitting there and not saying anything, express myself.
So, what you are doing is something that you want to do more often?
Galo: Oh yes, denitely.
Dr. Gerald Corey: Speaking for me where I am sitting at least in this chair, I like hearing when you talk and I
want to listen to you. So, it is a shame that you would take the voices from the past and hang on to it and say,
“There is truth, because they told me I have nothing to say, because they told me it was stupid, because they
told me who are you to talk” and you believe them. So, I hope you keep talking out and arguing with that side.
12/6/2019 Challenges Facing Group Leaders 18/19
Marian: The concern I have when someone does not talk, I do not know how any of what is going on in this
group is aecting you, how you are left with it. So, I need to know that, I need to hear from that because I
would be very worried when we walk away week after week not having said anything. I wonder what is going
on for Galo, is he safe in this group?
Galo: It is good to hear that you guys do notice me and do notice that I am not speaking and I am being
absent, so at least verbally that is good to hear.
Narrator: The diversity and life experiences of the group members can have a profound eect on how
members view and interact with each other.
Maria: I notice that you can relate to him, is that maybe that because of the culture? I am a Latina and I know
that the males in my family they do not – no, no, I mean if you show any feelings it is weakness.
Dr. Gerald Corey: And what is that like when you see men feeling for you Maria?
Maria: Oh, I have a lot of respect for you. To me, you are a true man because you know how to show your
feelings and more knowing that you grew up with those messages that you are not supposed to be doing that,
doing that in front of us, you have my respect. You are a man.
Marian: See what happens when you speak up?
Galo: Yeah, it feels good.
Narrator: As this group session comes to an end, the group leaders use this opportunity to reiterate what was
learned and to bring closure.
15: Checking out: What is each of you taking from this session?
Dr. Gerald Corey: We are wrapping up for this particular session. I think one thing that I would hope you got
from this is the importance of talking. And that if you keep things inside that you are thinking and feeling as it
pertains to this group then we do not move very far. So, I hope each of you will say something about what you
are leaving with and what you want to come back to next week.
Marian: Especially any shift that you notice in yourself and anything that you are learning about conict.
Dr. Gerald Corey: You can certainly see a lot of what we might call resistance in this session about people not
wanting to be here and being dicult at times. But maybe another way to look at that is all of what was
happening makes a lot of sense. And so, rather than slapping the label resistance like you are not cooperating
maybe looking at it in another way of what might your behavior be telling us. I have learned one thing that by
leaving it, nothing gets better. So, one of the goals I have is to give people an opportunity to talk more about
what is going on and to get more of the conict out.
Marian: By letting it go on it I get a better sense – at least I am trying to some sense, what is happening here,
how come all of the sudden we have this energy, what is not being said in terms of what is being covered up
by people and want them to get a sense of their own frustration. And the most important thing again is for me
to keep them talking and to slow them down and at some point to observe out loud what I see happening to
ask them what they are seeing, what are they observing.
Dr. Gerald Corey: What I want to pay a lot of attention to that during conict how you are with one another.
And so, if you put somebody down or if you use sarcasm or you verbally abuse anybody, I certainly want to
step in.
12/6/2019 Challenges Facing Group Leaders 19/19
Marian: No matter what the members do I do not want to give up on them. I am very willing to really hang in
there with them.
Dr. Gerald Corey: Part of that for me would be letting a person know the internal struggle I might be having.
There may be a temptation to want to give up or go on. So, I hope I can let them know what is making it
dicult for me to stay with them in a non-judging or a non-blaming sort of way.
Subject Matter Expert:
Instructional Designer:
Interactive Designer:
Project Management:
Groups in Action: Evolution and Challenges. Second Edition. Gerald Corey, Marianne
Schneider Corey, Robert Haynes. 2014, Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning
Gerald Corey
Judi Gronseth
Patrick Lapinski
Alan Campbell, Julie Greunke
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

12/6/2019 Group Proposal Scoring Guide 1/2
Group Proposal Scoring Guide
Due Date: End of Unit 9
Percentage of Course Grade: 35%.
Describe the
foundation of
counseling and
the techniques
used for the
Does not describe
the theoretical
foundation of
group counseling
and the techniques
used for the
Describes some
with limited
Describes the
foundation of
counseling and
the techniques
used for the
Explains the
theoretical foundation
of group counseling
and the techniques
used for the theory,
including a
comparison of the
techniques used in the
Analyze the
associated with
the group
process and how
they evolved
during the
group, including
examples from
the initial,
working, and
final stages.
Does not analyze
the dynamics
associated with
the group process
and how they
evolved during the
group, including
examples from the
initial, transition,
working, and final
Describes some
group dynamics
with limited
Analyzes the
associated with
the group
process and
how they
evolved during
the group,
examples from
the initial,
working, and
final stages.
Analyzes the
dynamics associated
with the group process
and how they evolved
during the group
including examples
from the, including
examples from the
initial, transition,
working, and final
stages and an
example from the
video, and uses that to
add to the illustration
for at least one stage.
factors used by
effective group
leaders and how
the factors
contributed to
Does not describe
therapeutic factors
used by effective
group leaders and
how the factors
contributed to
Describes some
factors with
factors used by
effective group
leaders and
how the factors
contributed to
Assesses therapeutic
factors used by
effective group leaders
and how the factors
contributed to group
including an example
from the video, and
uses that to add to the
illustration for at least
one factor.
12/6/2019 Group Proposal Scoring Guide 2/2
Describe the
and functions
used to
effective group
leadership skills.
Does not describe
the characteristics
and functions used
to demonstrate
effective group
leadership skills.
Describes some
and functions
used to
effective group
leadership skills
with limited
Describes the
and functions
used to
effective group
Describes the
characteristics and
functions used to
demonstrate effective
group leadership
skills, including an
example from the
video, and uses that to
add to the illustration
for at least one
Describe the
strategies used
for designing
and facilitating
Does not describe
the culturally
relevant strategies
used for designing
and facilitating
Describes some
strategies used
for designing
and facilitating
groups with
Describes the
strategies used
for designing
and facilitating
Describes the
culturally relevant
strategies used for
designing and
facilitating groups,
including an example
from the video, and
uses that to add to
your illustration for at
least one strategy.
Describe group
techniques used
to promote
including an
examination of
the techniques
employed to
connect what
happened in the
group to the
outside world for
the students.
Does not describe
group counseling
techniques used to
promote positive
including an
examination of the
employed to
connect what
happened in the
group to the
outside world for
the students.
Describes some
techniques to
outcomes with
used to
including an
examination of
the techniques
employed to
connect what
happened in the
group to the
outside world
for the students.
Describes group
counseling techniques
used to promote
outcomes, including
an examination of the
techniques employed
to connect what
happened in the group
to the outside world for
the students, and
provides an example
from the video that
illustrates more than
one strategy.
clearly and
effectively using
current APA
Does not
clearly and
effectively using
current APA style.
effectively, but
does not
consistently use
current APA
clearly and
effectively using
current APA
Communicates clearly
and effectively using
current APA style, with
little or no errors that
detract from the
message and
professional tone.



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