Ethical Implications Of Administrative And Organizational Decisions Essay Paper

Ethical Implications Of Administrative And Organizational Decisions Essay Paper

Ethical Implications Of Administrative And Organizational Decisions Essay Paper

What is a managed care organization? Based on your reading, discuss how managed care organizations attempt to control costs.  What are the benefits and disadvantages associated with these cost controlling measures?Ethical Implications Of Administrative And Organizational Decisions Essay Paper


Assignments are to be a minimum of 2 full pages of text and 3 reputable references in proper APA format.

Facing Ethical Decisions How does a person determine what is right or wrong when making a decision? Most people faced with an ethical decision usually revert to their personal values that hopefully guide them through the decision-making process. Assessing values and morals are an important role when making ethical decisions and how others view a person after making that decision. “Once we grasp the underlying concepts of making important decisions, we need to know how to apply them.” (Fisher, 2005) The choices between right and wrong involve the background of an individual’s experiences with family, religion, culture, work and habits. Being Ethical Making Proper Decisions Every person makes many decisions every day without even thinking but when faced with an ethical dilemma one must use caution while determining the results. A person should stop and think about whom the decision will affect and how others will perceive them afterward. Ethical Implications Of Administrative And Organizational Decisions Essay Paper  A good possible choice at the time may result in a wrong decision in the long term. “One of the most important steps to better decisions is the oldest advice in the world: think ahead.” (Josephson, 2002, p. 21). Credibility and respect shouldn ‘t be lost on others when making an ethical decision. The effects of short-term goals, as well as the impact of long-term objectives, should be considered. The facts of the situation should be known and understood before one can reach a reasonable conclusion. Different options should often have
The word Ethics is closely linked to words such as good, moral and
proper.Ethical Implications Of Administrative And Organizational Decisions Essay Paper  Ethics elucidate how a conscientious person should behave by
providing a way to choose between competing options. Ethics basically
pertain to well based standards of being equitable or impartial, i.e. what
humans ought to do in terms of obligations, benefits to society, fairness
or specific virtues. Decisions that are based on Ethics provide the pathway
for evaluating options more carefully. Ethical decision making does not
only emphasize on the doctrine based on the importance of ethics but it
also emphasizes on ethical sensitivity to implication of options, the
competence to appraise convoluted, equivocal and inadequate facts and the
ability to implement ethical decisions effectively.
Ethical decision making requires the ability of putting principles
into action. Congruity between what we say we value and what our actions
say we value is a matter of honor ability. Values are interpreted into
principles so that they can be the best guidance for good ethical conduct.
Ethical principles are the rules of conduct that are derived from ethical
values. For example, honesty is a value that governs behavior in the form
of principles such as, tell the truth, do not deceive, be candid, do not
cheat. Ethical Implications Of Administrative And Organizational Decisions Essay Paper In this manner, values give birth to standards of conduct in the
form of specific do’s and don’ts (Making Sense Of Ethics, Josephine
While making decisions, it is extremely important to realize that the
choices we make are to an extent, described greatly by our words, conduct
and actions. Good ethical decisions are greatly based on the following two
1. We possess the ability to decide what we do and what we say and
2. We are ethically accountable for the outcome of our decision (Groundwork
For Making Effective Decision, Josephine Institute Of Ethics).Ethical Implications Of Administrative And Organizational Decisions Essay Paper

John Rowls in his work “Theory of Justice as Fairness,” suggests managers should imagine themselves as being behind a veil of ignorance, where a manager doesn’t know about themselves or of their abilities. Their sex, nationality, tastes and race are unknown. Behind this veil, everyone is pictured as free, rational and moral. In this position, the only rational choice would be what is fair, because a person who knows nothing about themselves would make a decision that isn’t based on personal gains. Rowls’ beliefs follow closely with Immanuel Kant’s idea of the Liberty Principle, which is at least a universal minimum respect for all. This means everyone is given equal opportunity to basic liberties.  Ethical Implications Of Administrative And Organizational Decisions Essay Paper


Let’s assume that this basic liberties to all is applied to a cigarette company in the 1950s that knows of the unhealthy effects of cigarettes. Let’s also assume the company relies on canvassers to sell the cigarettes. This company needs to ensure (based on the application of the Liberty Principle) that everyone on staff tells the potential customers of the health effects. If a company is making a decision that affects change in this way, it could be met with much resistance by employees, which it is in the aforementioned situation. In applying the Liberty Principle also to the workers – which would make them a part of the decision-making process – a company can more easily implement a decision in an ethical manner.Ethical Implications Of Administrative And Organizational Decisions Essay Paper

A general way to implement a decision effectively in this way is by creating an ethical culture. It should be made clear from the start what the expectations are from each individual in the company. These could include setting out the company’s goals and core organizational values, which could mean placing equal value and liberties on all people and including all employees in developing ideas, as what was suggested by Rowls. < Effectively implementing a decision also requires managers to demonstrate their commitment to following the standards set out. A reduction needs to be made in the rewards for unethical behavior. For example, a cigarette salesman that sells the product for profit shouldn’t be encouraged if he lied about the health effects. Human resources procedures should also be developed for the best implementation. All employees should feel free to communicate with upper management. A board of directors that ensures these standards are met should be formed for best assimilation into the changed environment. This will help ensure employees are on board with the manager’s decision. Managers might single out and neutralize resisters, educate the workers, include all employees in the change process and reward positive employees.Ethical Implications Of Administrative And Organizational Decisions Essay Paper

Learning about Rowls’ ideas and lining them up with those of Kant, can help a manager understand the importance of allowing the employee to be able to come to their own ethical decisions (Kant, 1991). As Kant explains, those who have the expectations already written out for them aren’t as willing to comply with those ethics. He said moral decisions must be freely chosen for them to be taken seriously by the person who is making the moral decision.

As Kathryn G. Denhardt explained in “Unearthing the Moral Foundations of Public Administration: Honor, Benevolence, and Justice,” where rules aren’t “clearly applicable, the person with an underdeveloped understanding of general moral principles and underdeveloped capacities of discernment and judgment will be unable to make a good decision,” (Denhardt, 1991). This idea will help managers guide employees who might not have their own moral standards to better understand the reason the change is being made. This could be met with less resistance than if the process wasn’t explained to them.Ethical Implications Of Administrative And Organizational Decisions Essay Paper

So before making the decision to tell all potential customers about the health risks of smoking cigarettes, all employees should be made a part of the process. The viewpoints of the company should be made known so that workers without a moral standing will be involved in the decision-making process. This will promote a culture of the Liberty Principle, as described by Rowls, and not only will the company be better able to implement the moral decision of informing potential customers, but they will also gain the approval of the employees Ethical Implications Of Administrative And Organizational Decisions Essay Paper


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