HLT 362 Topic 2: Population and Sampling Distributions

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HLT 362 Topic 2: Population and Sampling Distributions

DQ 1

Select a research article, other than the articles from your assignments, from the GCU library. Provide an overview of the study and describe the strategy that was used to select the sample from the population. Evaluate the effectiveness of the sampling method selected. Provide support for your answer. Include the article title and permalink in your post.

Re: Topic 2 DQ 1

Patients’ views about the cause of cardiac disease (apparent risk factors) as part of the global psychological presentation are influenced by patients’ health knowledge. This study is intended to gauge the affiliation between actual and perceived risk factors, identification and indication of every risk factor. This is a cross-sectional study collection data for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients admitted to a single hospital were data collected was through a demographic interview, actual risk factors’ checklist, open single item of perceived risk factors, and a life stressful events scale. The data in this particular study were analyzed by means of Spearman’s correlation coefficients and one-sample Z-test for proportions. Although the study finds that there are substantial relations concerning actual and perceived risk factors associated with hypertension, family history, diabetes, smoking, and substance abuse, there is no relation between the actual and perceived risk factors, and patients underestimate the role of actual risk factors in disease.

The criteria included in this study is as follows: (1) 30–80 years of age, (2) appropriate perception and emotional–physical abilities, (3) being able to understand the language and fluent speech. Exclusion criteria included: (1) fatigue and lack of tendency for participation and (2) having risk factors out of the assessed risk factors of this study. The patients underestimated the role of aging (98.8%), substance abuse (95.2%), overweight and obesity (94.9%), hyperlipidemia (93.1%), family history (90.3%), and hypertension (90%) more than diabetes (86.1%), smoking (72.5%), and stress (54.7%). Among 368 CABG patients who were admitted in the department of cardiac surgery from May to August 2015, 333 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this study. Overall, 35 cases were excluded (21 cases: aging, 3 cases: cognitive dysfunction, and 11 cases: refused to participate) from the study. In addition, twenty cases were excluded from the study due to different risk factors than those assessed in this study. The final sample was of 313 patients. The authors used non-probability purposive sampling in selecting patients who had coronary artery disease knowing that they would be able to have at least 180 participants that would qualify under the inclusion rules. The convenience of having hospitalized patients allowed for the study to occur in real-time and with participants the researchers knew to have the inclusion criteria (AHRQ, n.d.).

References: HLT 362 Topic 2: Population and Sampling Distributions

AHRQ (n.d.). Participant recruitment for research. Health Information Technology Archive: Best practices transforming quality, safety, and efficiency. Retrieved from: https://healthit.ahrq.gov/ahrq-funded-projects/emerging-lessons/participant-recruitment-research

Soroush et al (2017). Coronary artery bypass graft patients’ perception about the risk factors of illness: Educational necessities of second prevention. Annals of Cardiac Anesthesia. Vol. 20, Iss 3. Retrieved from: doi:10.4103/aca.ACA_19_17

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28701594

DQ 2

Using the research article selected for DQ 1, identify three key questions you will ask and answer when reading the research study and why these questions are important. When responding to peers, provide other questions and answers that could be considered in relation to the peers’ studies.

Re: Topic 2 DQ 2

1 ) How does Toxoplasmosis, Other (Varicella-Zoster virus infection, Syphilis, Parvovirus B19, Hepatitis B, Rubella virus, Cytomegalovirus infection and Herpes Simplex virus (TORCH) infection, affect the unborn baby?

Answer; When the pregnant mother is infected with TORCH it spreads through the circulatory system to the baby. When the unborn baby is infected because its immunity system is immature to fight the infection. The organs of the unborn baby fail to develop and ending up having congenita fetal abnormalities like hydrocephaly, anomalies of the central nervous system, symmetric fetal growth retardation, and nonimmune hydrops. miscarriages or still birth (Rajani 2018).

2) How can Toxoplasmosis, Other (Varicella-Zoster virus infection, Syphilis, Parvovirus B19, Hepatitis B, Rubella virus, Cytomegalovirus infection and Herpes Simplex virus infection be prevented?

Answer; TORCH is aa combination of different viruses. Vaccination against hepatitis B, Rubella virus, Varicella-Zoster virus and herpes simplex should be done. To lower chances of getting toxoplasmosis, do not eat uncooked meat or eggs, stay away from cat stool. And the most number one prevention is good hygiene, washing of hands before touching your food, washing all the vegetables and fruits (Rajani 2018) Routine antenatal screening along with behavioral and educational intervention is necessary to control TORCH infections. HLT 362 Topic 2: Population and Sampling Distributions

3) Which stage of pregnancy does the testing of TORCH done and what is involved?

Answer; serum samples are collected from pregnant women in first trimester with a bad obstetric history were included in the study. The serum samples were accompanied with a requisition form for TORCH profile and a brief clinical history of the patient. The patients were in the age group of 18-40 years Anti- Toxoplasma, anti Rubella, anti HSV and anti- CMV IgM antibodies were assayed by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method using Calbiotech kits (Rajani 2018)

These questions are very important to pregnant mothers to know if they are at risk of having TORCH infection. If one is at risk to seek medical attention quickly for testing and treatment before the unborn baby is affected and to prevent the spread of infection to themselves to unborn baby. Mothers seek more information on the TORCH infections and attend prenatal check ups.


Rajani M (2018) Serological profile of TORCH Infection Among Antenatal Women at a Tertiary Care Center in North India. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology. Dec 2018, Vol. 12 Issue 4, p2305, Retrieved from 

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