PSYFP7210 Capella Adolescence Development Identity vs Role Confusion Case Paper Discussion

PSYFP7210 Capella Adolescence Development Identity vs Role Confusion Case Paper Discussion

Question Description
This paper has already been started and turned in for first attempt. I now need help with second attempt implementing writing from instructors feedback

Create and analyze a 1–2-page simulated case study of an adolescent with developmental challenges. Then, create a 5–7-page intervention plan based on evidence-based strategies that have proven effective in similar cases and make projections of possible long-term impacts that current challenges may produce across the individual’s lifespan.

Create a simulated case study, relevant to your area of specialization, of an adolescent who presents developmental challenges related to Erikson’s age- or stage-related milestones expected at his or her age.

Complete the following:

Research evidence-based interventions that have been effective in meeting the challenges of the adolescent you described in your case study, from the perspective of your own professional specialization (as far as possible).
Explain how the deficits in the social-emotional developmental domain impact development.
Explain how the environmental contexts impact development.
State the recommended interventions that align with your specialization.
Include evidence for those recommendations and outcomes from the professional literature.
Explore briefly the literature on adult identity and self-concept, considering that early influences can impact development across the lifespan.
Explain, from the perspective of your specialization, how the identity issues (for example, Erikson’s theoretical perspective) that emerged in adolescence could be manifested in adulthood.
Explain how this might help in understanding and determining an approach to working with an adult with a history of identity issues.

Also Read:

Nurses play vital roles in educating patients about HIV, providing support for treatment adherence, and assisting with navigation of care delivery. APRNs, further, are positioned to provide ART directly, consistent with their state practice authority.The community health nurse has professional technical skills and knowledge that the community populace may not have; thus, the nurse has the role in ensuring the quality of community-based care(Stover et al., 2021). They form a significant component in delivering quality HIV services, including counseling, adherence support, development of a referral framework, and dissemination of information. They also have the role of reporting and HIV data collection.
Demographics are essential since they offer an exhaustive comprehension of a population’s various features. The provided information is particularly vital to government organizations and institutions for making crucial policy decisions concerning the people(Stover et al., 2021). Similarly, demographics data is critical as it gives the health authorities andpopulace information they need to strategies and implements future investments and services; data from sources such as the CDC and the US Census aids in determining where assistance programs need to be directed (UNAIDS, 2021)

Case Study

Past few months, Lucy, a 16-year -old female living in British Columbia, Canada, has displaying abnormal behaviors and driving her parents crazy. GRAMMAR ERRORS Lucy used to be very compliant and respectful; now, she has been showing rebellious acts when it comes to abiding by her parents’ rules. She has been exhibited more insecurities and often seems to feel confused about how to fit into her surroundings. GRAMMAR ERRORS Recently she started dressing differently, wanting a more gothic like look and colored her hair jet black without permission. Lucy’s parents are both successful pharmacists and have always pushed extreme pressure in all her academics coercing her to follow their footsteps. Her parents had high hopes for her to obtain higher education, but now Lucy recently informed her parents she might not even attend college. Lucy was an advocate to playing all sports and had a positive peer group in her life until recently after quitting the sports team and chose to hang out with a new peer group that followed with a local band. Lucy acquired a romantic love interest to a “bad boy” who was already out of school and played in the band. She even started listening to different heavier music similar to the band’s genre as opposed to her typical indie genre. Her “new” group of friends would make fun of her when she would play it. Lately, she would blare music in her room and increase the volume louder and louder when her parents told her to turn it off and not listen to that kind of music. When she would tell her friends about not listening to her parents and turned the volume up louder, they would reinforce this behavior by laughing and showing signs of approval. Her new peer group seemed to have a strong influence on Lucy’s change of behavior. They were not of age to smoke, but many of them did and often teased Lucy if she didn’t try. Her romantic interest also smoked, and she felt like if she did, she would look mature, and he would like her. Her parents started smelling cigarette smoke on her clothes and started to clamp down on her independence. Her parents tried forcing her to dye her hair back to normal, took her phone away, threw out her gothic clothes, spiked jewelry, and confined her to only academic school functions requiring her to come straight home afterwards with no extra activities allowed until she improved her behavior. This led to even more rebellious acts by sneaking out at night, skipping school, and a decline in her grades.

Adolescent Developmental Stage

Lucy is an adolescent. This stage often exhibits rebellious acts against parents. They will try out different and new things. The adolescent stage is typically seen between the ages of 12 and 20. They search for new ideas about themselves and search for their place in the world. According to psychologist Erik Erikson, exploration is part of a psychosocial crisis which is part of the developmental period when an individual has to resolve a conflict in their life. Adolescents will re-examine their identity, trying to discover who they are. Parental figures and family members persist in employing an influence on how adolescents feel about themselves, also outside influences such as friends, social groups, classmates, trends, popular culture become important in shaping and forming an identity during this stage. During this exploration adolescent who receives appropriate support and reinforcement will transpire from this stage with a good sense of self, feeling of control, and independence. When adolescents remain unsure of their beliefs and desires, they will remain confused about themselves and their future, and be insecure (Cherry 2018). Early adolescence is a period of specific vulnerability even for those who were not deprived in childhood. Adolescence experience biological, cognitive, and psychological changes that lead them to reevaluate themselves, relationships to their family and communities. These changes are often accompanied by disconnection from school, the beginning experimentation with drugs and alcohol, and sexual interest which can lead to identity versus role confusion
(Frey, 2018).
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Lucy is testing out different identities such as coloring her hair, hanging out with different social groups, and dabbing into new music and changes in her future. Her parents forbid her to test out different identities by restricting her from exploring. This has resulted in further non-compliant behavior from Lucy. Adolescents who are not permitted to explore and test out different identities can be left with Erikson theory of role confusion. Identity versus role confusion is the fifth stage of ego. It is the conscious self-awareness that is developed through social interaction, that continually changes due to experiences that are new and information that is obtained in adolescents daily interactions with others (Cherry 2018). Lucy is not sure who she is or what she really likes. She has exhibited wandering interests from quitting sports and hanging out with a different social group, uncertain if she wants to go to college now, or how she should dress. Instead, she has been left feeling disappointed and confused about her place in life and not obtaining a feeling of personal cohesiveness. Role confusion involves the individual not being sure about themselves or their place in society. In response to role confusion or identity crisis, an adolescent may begin to experiment with different types of lifestyles such as activities, relationships, style, hobbies, or jobs .When parents put extreme pressure or expectations into an identity on their adolescents this can result in rebellion in the form of establishing a negative identity, and in addition to this feeling of happiness Syed & McLean, 2018). Lucys recent change of exploring in different social groups and relationships led her to question her own view of herself and also perceived views by others. With the pressure and expectations of Lucy’s parents this has triggered Lucy to act out and display rebellious behavior.
Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development suggest that when teenagers approach adulthood they begin to investigate more about goals, values, beliefs. Erikson’s theories
suggests that young people who succeed in resolving the crisis at this stage develops the virtue of “fidelity.” This is characterized by the self-esteem and self-confidence that are requisite to associating freely with people and beliefs on the basis of their value, loyalty, and throughout the identity versus confusion stage, the conflict is targeted on cultivating a personal identity. Failure to create a sense of identity within humanity can lead to role confusion however, these issues can be resolved with Lucy and she can progress towards later developmental stages with the proper guidance and intervention (Syed & McLean, 2018).

Culture and Adolescent Development
Culture can be termed as the set of values, beliefs, attitudes, behaviors that are shared by a group of people and is communicated from one generation to the next. Across cultures, friends spend more time together than non-friends (Rubin& Menzer, 2010). In most Western cultures, adolescents generally experience a significant change in their social world during two major transitions that are clearly afforded by the prevailing social-cultural milieu. Early-adolescents are exposed to the transition from primary school to secondary school, and late-adolescents experience the transition from secondary school to university or work. Both of these transitions represent a marked period of discontinuity in the adolescent’s social world because they confront more diverse and heterogeneous social situations with the possibilities of new social group memberships, roles, expectations, and responsibilities. Indeed, greater heterogeneity in new social contexts tends to highlight differences between the self and others and, by implication, entails some impact on one’s social identities From this viewpoint, it is reasonable to expect that early- and late-adolescents would show some relative change in their social identity in response to the significant change in social context they experience (Tanti et al., 2011).As children become adolescents, they usually begin spending more time with their peers and less time with their families, and these peer interactions are increasingly unsupervised by adults(Pelz, n.d). Children’s concepts of friendship regularly focus on shared activities, while adolescents’ concepts of progressively focus sharing intimate interactions of feelings and thoughts. Adolescents within a peer group tend to be similar to one another in behavior and attitudes, a function called homophily, meaning adolescents who spend time together and are similar shape each other’s attitudes and behaviors (Brown& Larson,2009). A common study has suggested characteristics of adolescent peer influence is known as different peer contagion which is the development in which peers reinforce problem behavior by laughing or showing other signs of approval which increases the chance of future problem behavior (Dishion& Tipsord, 2011). Lucy seems to be displaying this form of behavior during the adolescent stage. Peers can aid both negative and positive roles during adolescence. Negative peer pressure such as making fun of Lucy for not smoking and telling her it’s the cool thing to do can lead her to make riskier decisions or engage in more problematic behavior than she ever would alone or in the presence of her family. Adolescence with positive peer relationships are happier and better adjusted than those who have negative peer relationships (Brown& Larson,2009).
EVIDENCE BASED SPECIFIC TYPES OF THERAPY Lucy’s parents exhibit authoritarian parenting, who are both commanding and reactive. They monitor and inform clear principles for Lucy’s behavior. Authoritarian parenting produces a competitive/ harsh reaction from the adolescent, where overall support and cooperation between parent and adolescent decreases. Mounts and Steinberg asserted parenting style can help guide an adolescent to choose a peer group that reinforces qualities that the parent can affirm and support. Applying the existential idea of responsibility and independence, parents and adolescent can be helped by a therapist to communicate their personal freedoms in a safe space, while finding a middle ground on what is best for both parent and child. It’s important for Lucy to have the opportunity and safe space to express her feelings concerning her position as an adolescent. The therapist should spend a considerable amount of time building her self- esteem by focusing on the positive elements that Lucy brings her family, friends, school, and community. The therapist should exhibit a respectful and authentic behavior that promises well when working with adolescents like Lucy. Showing deep respect for Lucy is a successful way of achieving entry into her world. This type of action helps catch adolescents off guard, but in a positive, helpful way. The idea is to help Lucy create an identity that’s unique as long as appropriate space in which to explore the possible identities that suit her genuine existential identities. In the end, discovering the balance between low involvement and high involvement as either the therapist or her parents would seem to be the task impending for guiding Lucy in establishing a healthy identity (“Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development,” 1996).
Completing this stage effectively leads to a strong sense of self that will continue all through life. Possibilities are explored, and an adolescent can start shaping their own identity based on the aftermath of their exploring. Providing adolescents with the basis for making informed and wise decisions about their futures and building supportive social networks in every community may enhance the interest, skills, and hope of young people to invest in education and to protect their health. Preventive approaches such as life skills training, developing a healthy identity and trust, and the creation of social support networks, can offset underlying factors of vulnerability. Evening out the power of difference with an adolescent can strengthen their self-concept. With honest and inquisitive guidance by the mental health professional, this helps create trust within the adolescent

Brown, B. B., & Larson, J. (2009). Peer relationships in adolescence. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 74–103). New York, NY: Wiley
Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development. (1996). Great Transitions: Preparing Adolescents for a new century. New York, NY: Carnegie Corporation of New York.
Cherry, K. (2018, October 23). Identity vs. Role Confusion Understanding Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development. Retrieved May 27, 2019, from
Dishion, T. J., & Tipsord, J. M. (2011). Peer contagion in child and adolescent social and emotional development. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 189–214.
Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development. (2019, May). Retrieved May 27, 2019, from
Frey, Bruce (2018). “Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development” in The Sage encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (1-5063-2615-3, 978-1-5063-2615-3).
Hamburg, D. A., & Takanishi, R. (1989). Preparing for life: The critical transition of adolescence. American Psychologist, 44(5), 825–827.
Kroger, J., (2002). Introduction: Identity development through adulthood. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 2, 1-5.
Rubenstein, A., & Zager, K., (1995). Training in adolescent treatment: Where is psychology? Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 32, 2-6.
Rubin, K., & Menzer, M. (2010, January). Culture | Culture and Social Development. Retrieved May 27, 2019, from
Syed, M. & McLean, K. (2018). Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. In E. Braaten (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of intellectual and developmental disorders (pp. 578-581). Thousand Oaks,, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. doi: 10.4135/9781483392271.n178.

Tanti, C., Stukas, A. A., Halloran, M. J., & Foddy, M. (2011). Social identity change: Shifts in social identity during adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 34(3), 555-567. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2010.05.012


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