Segregation and Independent Assortment of Traits

Segregation and Independent Assortment of Traits

Segregation and Independent Assortment of Traits

Answer the 5 questions below in a short paragraph or two using your own words please and the book that I will send .

1.Cells and DNA: Describe mitosis and meiosis. What are the steps in each, and what

is the final outcome? When thinking about Meiosis, how does it confinr m Mendel’s

ideas about segregation and independent assortment of traits? Describe how genetic

information is copied and passed on to future generations during the process of cell


2. What is DNA? Where is it located, and what are its main functions? How has DNA been

used to compare living species and determine evolutionary relationships?

3. Genetics: Solve the following genetics problem by determining how the following traits

would assort. Use D/d for Rh. Remember Rh+ is dominant, and Rh- is recessive. Use A, B and

O for blood types. Remember it is a co-dominant system with O as the only recessive allele.

1.The mother is type AB- and the father is type A+

2.List all possibilities for each parent’s genotype using what you know from the information given so far (assuming you have only read (a)above.

3.Now assume the father is heterozygous for both traits. What are the genotypes you will use for each parent?

4.Create a double square (dihybrid cross) to assort these two traits. Show your work.

5.What are the possible genotypes for each child? Provide a percentage (or a fraction) for each possible genotype.

6.What are the possible phenotypes for each child? Provide a percentage (or a fraction) for each phenotype.

7.What are the chances of having a child that is heterozygous for both traits? Provide a percentage and explain your answer.

8.Is there any possibility that a child will be born to these parents that will show the recessive phenotype(s) for both traits? Explain: Why or why not?

4.Genetics: Using the Hardy-Weinberg equation, determine the genotype frequencies

we should expect in the next generation, given the following scenario. Show your


Background: the alleles that control for sickle cell anemia are co-dominant, meaning that if

both alleles are present, both phenotypes are expressed. Sickle cell anemia is a condition that is

fatal in the homozygous condition (SS). Normal hemoglobin in the blood is (AA). If a person is

(AS), this means that they will not die from sickle cell, but may experience some mild

symptoms. An advantage of being heterozygous (AS) is that carriers of the (S) allele will have

some immunity to malaria, whereas those with (AA) are more likely to suffee r and possibly die

from this mosquito-born illness.

  1. In your population there are 2000 individuals that colonize a new planet. Out of those 2000, 260 people in that population are heterozygous for sickle cell anemia.
  2. How many total alleles in the population for this trait?
  3. Determine the percentage of alleles in the population that are S.
  4. Determine the percentage of alleles that are A.
  5. Use the formula to predict the frequency of sickle cell anemia in the next generation. Use the A allele for P and the S allele for q.
  6. How many newborns will likely die from sickle cell anemia in the colony?
  7. How many people will be heterozygous?
  8. How many homozygous for the A allele?
  9. What factors (if any) do these predictions depend on?

5. Comparative Anatomy: Discuss sexual dimorphism as it applies to humans. Discuss at least three specific traits observable in the cranium or post-cranial skeleton where males and females differ explain the differences. Now compare human sexual dimorphism to the degree of sexual dimorphism found in great apes. How does this correlate with our social organization? How do some or all of the traits you describe reflect evolutionary trends?


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