Stages of External Respiration & Gradients and Resistance of Each Stage

Stages of External Respiration & Gradients and Resistance of Each Stage

Stages of External Respiration & Gradients and Resistance of Each Stage

1. core concept of flow-down gradients, explain the movement of glucose in and out of the nephron.

2. core concept of homeostasis, explain how the kidneys are involved in controlling fluid osmolarity.

3. Compare the structure and functions of the major regions of the nephron.

4. Compare the structure and function of cortical and juxtamedullary nephrons.

5. Discuss the effect of renin, angiotensin, and aldosterone on blood pressure. (Be thorough, specific, and accurate).

6. Explain how the vertical concentration gradient in the medulla and the concentration of vasopressin influences the volume and osmolarity of urine produced.

7. Compare the mechanism and effect of loop diuretics, thiazide diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and ARBs (angiotensin II receptor blockers).

8. Explain the four stages of external respiration and identify the gradients (driving force) and resistance of each stage.

9. Explain and give the formula for Boyle’s law and how changes in thoracic volume is related to Boyle’s law.

10. Compare tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory reserve volume, residual volume, vital capacity, total lung capacity, inspiratory capacity, and functional residual capacity. List the average values for each volume and capacity.

11. Explain how local mechanisms allow for the matching of ventilation and perfusion.

12. Explain how the oxygen dissociation curve is related to the properties and function of hemoglobin.

13. Discuss how changes in temperature, PCO2, pH and 2,3 DPG concentration shift the oxygen dissociation curve.

14. Explain how oxygen dissociation curve shifts affect oxygen loading in the lungs and unloading at the tissues.

*When answering the questions, look at the way the question is worded.

*List means just that, make a list;

*Diagram means draw and label;

*Describe means tell me about it;

*Explain means tell me how it works;

*Compare means tell me how things are similar and how they are different.

*For describe, explain, and compare questions,

*THINK about what you want to write, OUTLINE your answer, and then write your answer.

*Answer with a short paragraph or series of paragraphs. Each paragraph should begin with a topic sentence, several sentences which support or elaborate on the topic sentence, and a transition or concluding sentence.* If a series of paragraphs are needed, the first paragraph should be an introduction to your answer.


NOTE: you have to answer each question in a paragraph, you can’t do tables and each paragraph should be

15-20 lines and make sure to do it on your own words.


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