The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
Arguably, since the spin of the 20th century there has been impossible demographic change in aging. Ageism is the abuse, discrimination, avoidance and stereotyping of the old people in the society (William & Julian, 2008). We are presently living in a society in which its population is growing tremendously, especially individuals over the age of 65. The modern world is probably characterized by a rapid rate of aging. Ageism comes up with different types of social problems. For example each year in America, a minimum of one million and a maximum of three million elderly people are exploited, injured and mistreated by those individuals whom they depend on for care and support. Furthermore they are set of attitudes, norms, beliefs and values which are used to justify time based discrimination, inequality and subordination. These situations are either consistent or occasional.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
Advantages of an Ageing Population
The ageing population is often stereotyped as a burden and their detrimental impact on the economy is exaggerated causing their significant societal contributions to be overlooked. More precise analysis and research show that having an ageing population is often advantageous in terms of lower health care costs in later years of life and other beneficial contributions to the community. It appears that associating an ageing population with immense medical and social care expenses is a common misconception. The baby boomer generation has been observed to have better health and is more physically active than preceding generations in Australia (Healy 2004). It has been researched that approximately a quarter of all health related expenses in a person’s life are spent on their last year of life (Wanless 2001) and do not tend to increase with age. Furthermore it is more likely that health care expenditure on the last year of life decreases with age, as the elderly cannot physically endure extensive medical procedures (Graham et al. 2003). Nevertheless, the shift of dependent elderly people from hospitals to residential and nursing homes will minimize health care costs as it transfers the expenditure from health care to social care funds. Since social care is increasingly becoming more privatized, elderly people are less likely to financially burden the government (Healy 2004).
The ageing population also makes positive contributions to the community through their services. As the life expectancy has drastically increased in Australia, most of the baby boomers will retire while they are still physically and mentally healthier than preceding generations, and given appropriate incentives will be willing to work and contribute to tax revenue (Healy 2004). In the past women provided much of the volunteer work in the community, compared to today where woman are in the work force in increasing numbers. At this time when the contribution of volunteer workers is becoming increasingly applicable to our community, many health and welfare agencies are seeking to hire from the growing number of retirees.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
Voluntary services are a measure of social capital and an indication of a healthy civil society. It has been commonly observed that majority of volunteers tend to be elderly (Wilkinson and Bittman 2002). Therefore through volunteer services, the elderly substantially minimizes government expenditure on welfare, aid their families with childcare and find satisfaction in providing various other charitable services. The satisfaction of volunteering is very high and reports have shown this (Cummins et al. 2002b). Volunteering is regarded as one measure of social capital and thus an indicator to a healthy civil society.
The older generation are actively involved in the community as being members of clubs, one third of men and one quarter of women aged 55-75 years belong to sporting clubs (Howe and Donath 1997). They also attend musical concerts, theatres and art galleries more frequently than younger people, read more and visit libraries more often. Thus it is probable that the arts and culture will benefit from an older Australia.
Lower crime rate
As a general rule, it is likely that older communities will become more law abiding, since older people are less inclined to commit crimes. The Australian Institute of Criminology (2002) has projected that crime rates will drop by approximately 16% by 2050, when the proportion of the aging population in Australia increases. This indicates that there will be less likely to be crime altogether, resulting in money being saved in prisons and policing costs in the future. This is because most of the baby bombers will be well over 65 and an older community is less likely to commits crimes against property and people.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
Older people tend to play a role in supporting and maintaining informal social networks, which in turn bind communities and families together. Older people are said to be net providers (up to the age of 75 years old). This is due to the fact that they provide childcare, financial, practical and emotional assistance to family members including helping people outside the household with the tasks of daily living.
Grandparents now play an important social role in a time where people tend to have more living parents than children. This benefits grandparents directly whom find that this is an important aspect of their lives and makes them feel fulfilled. Not only does it benefit the grandparents, but also their grandchildren considerably.
In addition, the ageing population gives opportunities for the economy to respond to the needs of the older generation, by creating more jobs. A study on consumerism indicates that the consumer will spend considerably less on non-essential items and substitute to more essential items like spending money on grandchildren, leisure and recreation (Access Economics 2001a).
Disadvantage: Increased economic pressure to sustain older generations
The ageing population will have various impacts and in particular the effect it has on economics is something that is being considered very closely by the government, so that they can develop schemes and policies in order to solve imbalances in the economy. The major areas of concern in terms of the impact the ageing population will have on Australia’s economy include:
Decreased participation rates (amount of people in the workforce
Increased dependency rates (ratio of older people to younger people)
Increased fiscal gap (amount of money being spent by government on various sectors)
Decreased participation rates
The Australian Government has made projections that over the next 40 years, the proportion of the Australian population over 65 years will almost double to around 25 per cent, whilst at the same time, growth in the population of traditional workforce age (15-64 years) is expected to slow to almost zero (Australian Treasury 2009). This means the amount of people in the workforce is expected to decrease, and it will remain this way unless the government intervenes. This shortage of workers could lead to wages being pushed up causing wage inflation (Economics Help 2008).The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
Increased dependency rates
It is clear that with an increase in the proportion of people over the age of 65, there will be a decreased proportion of people of workforce age. This means that there will be more people claiming benefits such as state pensions and less people working and paying income taxes, causing an increase in dependency ratio.
The forecast for dependency ratios represents predictions for dependency ratios by country. It shows that Australia, among other countries, will experience almost a double in ratio over the next 50 years, which will have severe impacts on the working force as they will experience increases in income tax in order to support the increased proportion of older population. When those in work may have to pay higher taxes, this could create disincentives to work and discourage firms to invest, therefore there could be a fall in productivity and growth (Economics Help 2008).
Increased fiscal gap
The fiscal gap represents an imbalance in revenue and expenditure of the government. An older proportion of Australian’s would require the government to increase spending on health care and pensions, whilst older people pay lower income taxes as they are not working. A combination of these factors will have a negative impact on the Australian economy, as it will find itself further in debt.
Chart 10 represents the projections of government spending for the next 40 years for various sectors. It is evident that the health, aged care and age pension spending will increase significantly, whilst other income support and education spending drop.
Evidently, due to the increased proportion of older Australians over the coming decades, the economy will suffer seriously unless the government intervenes with policies and schemes in order to diffuse the potential issues of debt and inflation.
Disadvantage: The Generation Gap and its Implications
The ‘baby boomer’ period after the war caused a spike in birth rates, and we are now seeing the implications of it on the Australian community. Currently there is a gap between the baby boomer generation and generation Y (those born in the 80s and 90s), leaving a large percentage of the population at the age of retirement, or in their final years of employment. The workforce looks to be hit the hardest this growing rift in generations.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
Around Australia, the unemployment rate is at an all-time low, but with the baby boomers exiting the workforce; there will be too many jobs for those who qualify, both in age and experience, to fill. Ultimately the workforce and those who are of working age is rapidly shrinking rapidly. “Currently 66% of the total population is aged 15–64 years but by 2051 it will decline to just 57%” (ABS, 2009). Although there will be endless opportunities, generation Y are seen to be unreliable and unpredictable workers. They are more likely to go travelling or socialize after higher education than gain employment. Australia is a fast advancing and exciting country and younger workers don’t like commitment or to be locked down to a particular job for too long. “In 1959, the Longitudinal Labour Market Study shows an average retention rate of 15 years. Today average retention per job per employee is just 4 years.” (Anderson, 2009) In the same study, 20-24 year olds were three times more likely to change jobs in a year than 40-45 year olds.
The graph above plots the makeup of Australia’s workplace and details future projection, and how things will change in less than a decade. (McCrindle, 2010) in 2020 there will be half as many baby boomers in the workforce, and they will become an economic burden to Australia.
Not only are the physical bodies leaving the workforce, but so is the experience and common sense. Young workers often leave jobs before their full potential is realised and some companies are having difficulties retaining ell trained workers and struggling with the loss of experience that is leaving with the baby boomer generation. “Young promising staff are being promoted early beyond their experience and either succeed and move on too soon, or fail and get stuck or leave.” (Anderson, 2009) There seems to be a shift in working culture, with success being the driving force and the goal of climbing the corporate ladder, without loyalty or accountability.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
Our current technological age looks to impact greatly on the workplace, as young workers are technologically savvy and it is a general consensus that the move to the digital medium will be beneficial. But it is feared that this change may leave behind good, honest working habits and even put workers out of a job. Only those with this highest qualification will be chosen and medial task will be left to those without the required education. Not only does age play a huge role, but so does wealth and education.
Disadvantage: Social Issues Associated with an Ageing Population
There are many social issues associated with the ageing population, including the decline in workforce participation and the increasing burden of disability and ill health in the elderly, of which both will be discussed in this section. These issues need to be addressed immediately by the government as they are going to placing a greater burden on the future of Australia’s economic and health systems.
One of the primary reasons for why Australia’s population is ageing is due to the increased life expectancy of the average Australian to about eighty years or more. Due to the increase in life expectancy, it is expected that many of these ‘older’ Australians (those over the age of sixty-five) are going to experience ill health and disability due to disease. The majority of these illnesses are strongly associated with age such as dementia, as well as chronic diseases, which are defined as diseases that are “prolonged in duration, does not often resolve spontaneously, and is rarely cured completely” (Dept. of Health & Ageing) – this includes cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes.
As these ‘older’ Australians are beginning to represent the majority of the population, this is going to be placing a greater burden on Australia’s health care systems. These elderly patients will be spending most of their time in hospitals during their treatment, and it is thought that patients diagnosed with chronic conditions and age related diseases take up most health care provision and expenditure in hospitals (CEDA 2012). A possible solution for reducing the impact of this on Australia’s health system is to focus on the various levels of prevention of these diseases, not only the treatment of the sickness. This includes educating the population about how to reduce risk factors associated with many of these diseases such as poor diet, irregular exercise and smoking. This will significantly reduce the burden of disease on the health care system.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
Another social issue that is of great importance is the decline in workforce participation that is strongly associated with the ageing population, as ‘older’ Australians are starting to represent a large proportion of the Australian population. The age of retirement in Australia is sixty-five, and this means that there are going to be increasing numbers of people over this age that won’t continue working past this age. The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS 2010) stated on their website that “as the proportion of the population who are of traditional working age (15-64 years) decreases over the next 40 years, it is projected that economic growth will slow, whilst spending pressures in areas such as health, age pensions, and aged care are projected to rise.” Therefore this is going to have great implications on the future of Australia’s economic system as less people are going to continue working past the traditional working age.
It is estimated that by 2016, 80% of the labour force will be people over the age of 45 (Wesley Mission) – this means that a large proportion of the working labour force will be classified as ‘older.’ Unfortunately, there is strong preference by employers to employ younger workers (NATSEM 1998) despite the fact that ‘older’ workers have more experience and are more likely to have a greater work performance than younger workers. From this evidence, we need to prevent age discrimination from occurring in the work place and encourage so called ‘older’ workers to continue participating in the work force, to ensure that there isn’t too much stress being put on Australia’s economic system in the future.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
Disadvantage: Immigration and Baby Boomers are Contributing to the Ageing Population
Recently it has been argued that an increase in immigration levels should be put into place to address population ageing. But it is more likely that immigration will contribute to the ageing population rather than preventing it.
Migrants are predominantly of workforce age. Skilled migrants, who made up 70% of the immigration intake in 2010, tend to be better educated and have better labor market outcomes than the average Australian. Moreover if they are skilled they will raise general skill levels and productivity.
Since World War 2, Australia has been deemed to be a safe and independent nation, inviting migrants to leave their homelands and trouble and relocate. Much like the increase in fertility after the war, such was the same with immigration levels. Although migrants are workforce ready, there is no way to stop them from ageing like the rest of the population. We are now seeing that those migrants who came to Australia after the war are contributing the ageing of our population.
To sustain a stable age bracket, with immigration playing a main role, an increase in intake would have to be seen each year, getting higher and higher in number each year to fill the generation gap. By increasing immigration, ageing will be heightened as there is will be an increase in population and we cannot prevent migrants growing in age too. Therefore in the long run, immigration will put pressure on Australian boarder security, the economy and ultimately have little effect.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
The main issue regarding baby boomers ageing is the strain that the rapidly ageing population will endow upon the economy due to increased government expenditure on medical, pension, housing and aged care services. Since Australia’s labor force (population age between 15-64) is currently not increasing at dramatic rates, it is suggested that there will not be enough members within the workforce to provide the resources and social support required to maintain a standard lifestyle for the aged (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006). Furthermore due to the Global Financial Crisis shrinking superannuation funds, many baby boomers will be unable to accumulate enough finances to support themselves into retirement (Productive Ageing Centre, 2012). Therefore more responsibility will fall upon the government to provide for the ageing population and stunt economic growth. It is expected that by 2030 in Australia for every 33 people receiving pension, there will 100 people in the workforce indicating that approximately a third of the population will require financial assistance (Wesley Mission, 2012). It is evident that the baby boomers will continue to age and become highly reliant on an economy that does not have sufficient workers to supply their demands revealing an obvious upheaval in economic balance that has the potential to send Australia into another financial crisis (Productive Ageing Centre, 2012).
The elderly are a crucial part of the commnity and they contribute both knowledge and experience beyond thier years. An aged population puts endless economic stress on the nation, as health care funding and superannuation requires exponential funding, as general living cost continue to rise. With such a large proportion of the population as classified as elderly, it is hard to overlook the long list of disadvatanges.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
Population aging is one of the most important demographic features that has come into prominence in the twenty-first century. In general, longevity has increased while fertility has declined resulting in an increase in the proportion of the older people. Aging of the population affects all aspects of the society including health, social security, education, socio-cultural activities, family life and the labor market. Regarding the latter, a decline in the young population of working age lowers the labour force participation rate, leading to a rise in the proportion of retired people. While governments in both developing and developed countries primarily focus on the negative effects of this for socio- demographic development, they have often also considered how such labour shortages can be mitigated by increasing the retirement age. Regarding care of the elderly, if fertility continues decreasing then this will inevitably lead to a lack of care workers, both paid and unpaid, especially, for elderly people. The social and economic provision of care still creates gender dilemmas for societies by narrowing the range of employment opportunities for women. As caring responsibilities are in general better fulfilled by women, high demand for paid care workers will increase women’s participation in the labor market in place of their role as unpaid care workers in the household. This paper analyzes possible changes in several variables, including labour force participation, the pension system, retirement age and labour supply. It places special emphasis on a variety of demographic and policy forces that are vitally important for evaluating the impact of population aging on economic growth. It also considers the implications of these developments for closing the gender gap in pension provision. It ends by offering some policy options aimed at forming the active policies that are essential for coping with the world’s rapidly increasing number of older people.
There exist lots of challenges facing the western societies. In the modern aging society, the circumstances affecting people and groups as they grow up are totally linked to the overall well-being of the society. In the community there is mounting facts that various effects of aging are neither inevitable nor irreversible. Age is one among many causes of social problems. This is because the pure older and the extremely young are more vulnerable than any other age groups in society. Problems related to the elderly include financial instability, poverty, victimization, isolation, dependency, lack of access to appropriate health care and inadequate housing (William & Julian, 2008).The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
Senior citizens are among the most economically vulnerable members of our society. 25 million Americans over 60 are considered “economically insecure,” and a third of seniors have no money left at the end of each month. Many older Americans live on fixed incomes and are very vulnerable to inflation, and many have problems with health or mobility that limit where they can live.
Many federal and private grants for seniors exist. The Older Americans Act establishes the need for financial assistance covering different areas. Programs exist at both the state and federal level, and there are ways to secure financial help through several traditional and non-traditional sources. Many of these methods are described here. Contact links for all agencies and organizations discussed here are included at the end of this article.
Food and Nutrition Assistance
Elderly nutrition programs are designed specifically for senior citizens alone, while most older Americans can also take part in programs designed for everyone.
The Senior Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP) provides federal money to states, which use the money to give food coupons to low-income seniors. Those coupons can be used to buy food at participating farmers’ markets in the area. The purpose of the program is to increase access to healthy food options. You will need to access the USDA’s SFMNP contact page and find a local contact for your area. You can also find income qualification requirements on the SFMNP income qualifications page.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), sometimes still called “food stamps,” helps low-income families and individuals afford the cost of food on a monthly basis. SNAP for seniors now works through a debit card, transferring money from an account to the participating store. Many stores participate in SNAP, although SNAP does place some limits on what items you can purchase through the program. You can apply for SNAP at your local benefits office. SNAP is funded by the federal government but administered at the state level. Access the SNAP Application and Local Office Page for more information.
The federal Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP) purchases USDA foods and distributes those products to provide help to seniors who may need food assistance. This program is a partnership between state and federal agencies. The only eligibility requirement for NSIP is age, which is a minimum of 60 years. To apply, you will need to contact your local NSIP state distributing agency, which can be located using the NSIP Food Distribution Contacts page.
The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP) can help if you are facing a short-term food emergency. This program, which serves all populations in need, is designed to help cover emergency food needs. TEFAP delivers food at no cost to the recipient. Income requirements may apply, but exact requirements vary by state. You can find local contacts for your state’s TEFAP program by using the USDA’s TEFAP Contacts Page.
The Commodity Supplemental Food Program (CSFP) provides low-income Americans with regular, free food aid assistance. The purpose of CFSP is to help improve the health of those in need. Seniors aged 60 years or older who have an income that is 130% of the Poverty Guidelines can apply. Access the USDA Food Distribution Contacts page to find local contact numbers.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
Meals on Wheels provides regular food aid to low-income seniors who either have no family or have no family nearby who can help. This program is privately run, although many local programs do receive some federal aid. Meals on Wheels operates year round and does not charge for their services. Each Meals on Wheels program is locally operated. You can find contact information on the Meals on Wheels Local Programs page.
People today, live longer and often healthier lives owing to advances in various areas. It is a challenge to maintain and plan longer lives. Societal ageing hampers economic growth and issues such as sustainability of families, the states and communities’ capacity to provide for older people.
A quick look at the recent decline in fertility rates combined with increases in life expectancy and strong evolution from past fluctuations in birth and death rates depicts a really significant shift in the global age structure. So much so that by 2050, twenty two percent of the world’s population will be over the age of 60 or a figure reaching almost 2 billion compared to expectations for year 2020 of 1 billion. As for citizens aged 80 or above, statistics predict an increase from 1 to 4 percent.
It is undeniable that a country’s economic character will tend to change as its population ages since different age groups have different economic needs and productive capabilities. These changes can be measured by assuming a certain age-specific behaviour in relation to earnings, employment and savings and to assess the implications of modifications in the relative size of different age groups for these main contributors to the national income. However this tends to be misleading in the long run.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
Normally, changing expectations about life cycle and demographic shifts are likely to entail behavioural changes and thereby influencing economic consequences of ageing. One good example is an individual who expects to live longer than his ancestors who will continue to work for longer and therefore start benefiting his savings at a later age.
Rapid reduction in infant mortality rates coupled with a dynamic fall in the death rate has resulted in a sharp rise in the proportion of older people in the population. This phenomenon of ageing population is fast becoming a worldwide problem. In 1950 there were about 200 million people above 60 years old in the world. This figure has risen some 616 million in the year 2000 and is expected to rise to 1.2 billion in 2025. A majority of them, about 72% of the total, will be living in developing countries. The projections indicate that the demographic transition will proceed much more rapidly in developing countries than it did previously in developed ones. The continuing fertility decline in many developing countries today is faster than the gradual decline experienced by the currently developed countries. In the developing countries, therefore, the pace of population ageing will exceed the pace in the developed countries. For example, it took France and Belgium more than 100 years to double the rate of the population over 60 from 9% to 18%. In Mauritius, the same change will occur in only 25 years.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
3.0 Current economic problem of the ageing population.
EU residents over age 65 outnumber those under 14, a Spanish study says, as the bloc’s young population has fallen 21% in 25 years. There are currently more elderly people than children living in the EU, as Europe’s young population has decreased by 21 percent – or 23 million — in 25 years, 10 percent of which in the last ten years alone. Only 16.2 percent of today’s EU population is less than 14 years old, while one sixth (16.6 percent) is 65 years or more. In addition one out of every 25 EU citizens is over 80 years old. Italy has the least young people (14.2%) and one out of every five Italians is more than 65 years old. At the other end of the scale, Ireland has the most youngsters (20.7%), according to a recently-released report by the Institute for Family Policies based in Spain.
However, the decrease in numbers has been greatest in Spain, where the young population has diminished by 44% in the 1990 to 2005 period. Despite these figures, the EU population has grown by 8.2% over the last 27 years, now reaching almost 500 million. This paradox can mostly be explained by an ever increasing number of immigrants coming to the EU. Last year alone, 75% of the population growth was the result of immigration flows.
France and the Netherlands are the only member states where the natural population growth has been higher than the immigration inflow. A relative population growth can be noted only in Western European countries, however, while in central and eastern Europe it has either remained the same (Slovenia and Slovakia), or decreased. The decrease has been most significant in new member state Bulgaria, which has lost almost 8% of its population (7.94%) in the last ten years.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
On top of that, the number of births across the EU has been decreasing and in some member states, the birth rate is almost two times lower than in the US (2.09 children per family in 2006).In Greece, Spain and Italy birth rates have reached a critical level of 1.28 to 1.34 children per family, while among the new member states, none but Cyprus has a birth rate of above 1.30.One divorce every 30 seconds in the EU. The report which focuses on the Evolution of the Family in Europe in 2007 also points at the decreasing number of successful marriages. From 1980 to 2005 the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 22.3 percent, while divorces increased by 55 percent in the same period. Spain presents the most radical case-study, as the number of divorces there has increased by 183 percent in the last 25 years. Currently, a couple divorces every 30 seconds in Europe and over 13.5 million marriages affecting more than 21 million children ended between 1990 and 2005 in the enlarged EU.
4.0 The Economic and Financial consequences of Population Ageing.
4.1 The importance of age structure.
Economic growth may be influenced by changes in population age structure. To analyse age structure, a life-cycle perspective is adopted, based on people’s economic needs and contributions during the various stages of life. The ratio of consumption to production is higher for the young and old people and lower for working adults. The key drivers of economic growth such as labour, productivity, consumption and savings vary according to where people fall in the life cycle. Labour and savings are higher among working adults than among those aged above 60. Declining fertility and mortality rates during the past four decades have significantly changed the age structure of the population.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
4.2Social Security Benefits
Social Security benefits and public sector pensions are among the sectors that will certainly be affected by the ageing issue. Nowadays, the composition of social security benefits is two-fold, non contributory and contributory. Basic retirement pensions of the elderly and the elderly invalids irrespective of their economic status are non-contributory benefits wholly financed by government. The actuarial report on the National Pensions Fund has drawn attention to the fact that future increases in the number of pensioners will make the financing of basic retirement pensions an increasing burden on resources. The cost of basic retirement pensions rose sharply from about Rs 2.3 billion in 1999/2000 and is estimated to be Rs 3.5 billion in 2015 and Rs 6.4 billion in 2035. Examination of the implications of the projected strain on government resources is therefore becoming a high priority. Assuming that the rate of basic pension remains more or less the same, it should be noted that an increase in pension age from 60 to 65 would lead to significant saving to the government in respect of basic pensions. Tax revenues may also increase as a result of employment continuing between ages 60 and 65 but there would be no financial impact on the NPF as a result of these changes. Welfare services such as long term care and any payment (other than from the NPF) to the elderly out of the state budget which are likely to increase faster than GDP in future are other examples of financial implications of ageing on state budgets.
The ageing of the population will increase the financial strain on the state budget in future as follows:
Basic pension expenditure (all of which is financed by general taxation) is projected to increase by 75% in some twenty years and to almost triple by 2040 if present pension rates are maintained.
Expenditure from the NPF is projected to exceed contribution income by 2015. Part of the NPF expenditure will need to be met by investment income, most of which is derived from Government bonds or loans. In the absence of corrective measures, the investment income required to meet NPF expenditure would be derived largely from taxation.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
Expenditure on healthcare and social services for the elderly can also be expected to increase substantially over the same period.
4.3 Accounting Effects
If age-specific behavior in respect of labour supply and savings were fixed, labour supply and savings per capita would decrease with a rising elderly share of the population. Keeping all other factors such as productivity and migration equal, this would imply lower growth in income per capita. Peter Peterson (1999), argued that, “global ageing could trigger a crisis that engulfs the world economy and may even threaten democracy itself.” Alan Greenspan (2003), former U.S Federal Reserve Chairman has stated that ageing in the United States “makes our social security and Medicare programs unsustainable in the long run”.
The European Union’s Economic Policy Committee (2010) is more measured in its assessment of the threat: The ageing of the population is becoming a growing challenge to the sustainability of public finances in the EU Member States. The increase of the ratio between the number of retirees and the number of workers will gradually increase expenditure on public pensions and health and thus creates difficulties on maintaining a sound balance between future public expenditure and tax revenues.
The retirement of baby boomers and the increase in the share of elderly in the population will create economic and fiscal stresses on the second decade of the 21st century. These demographic developments, if not offset by changes in household behavior and government fiscal policy, will reduce the number of workers in relation to the population needing support and lower the national saving rate. The result will be slower growth in national income and consumption after 2010.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
Aging-related expenditures are one of the fastest growing components of government expenditures. Over the next 40 years, the share of working adults will decline from 59 percent of the population to about 56 percent. The share of older adults (65 and over) will increase from just over 12 percent to almost 21 percent of the population. The higher costs of supporting these retirees will be offset partially by lower costs of supporting children, as the share of the population age 19 and under will drop from 29 percent to just over 23 percent.
4.5 Future Labour supply
After 2010 the population between ages 20 and 64 will decline and the percentage of people over age 65 will increase dramatically. These changes reflect the short run effect of the ageing of baby boomers while the long-run effect of reduced fertility and increased life expectancy. If labour force participation rates in each age group remain the same, the ratio of workers to retirees will decline sharply between 2010 and 2030. A decrease in the share of workers in the population means that, if all else remains the same, output per capita and living standards will be lower than they otherwise would have been if the share of workers had remained stable.
The change in age composition of the population will reduce the share of workers and increase the share of dependent elderly. The increase in experience associated with an older workforce will raise average earnings and productivity per worker.
With better health and increased life expectancies, one can expect individuals to work longer. The response to rising life expectancy is to increase the number of working years and the number of years in retirement proportionately, without changing period-specific saving behaviour. While a large set of factors such as increasing demand for leisure, general increases in wealth and difficult labour markets have contributed to low labour force participation among the elderly, social security systems have undoubtedly been a key reason for the continued low labour force participation among the elderly. Even if individuals decide not to work longer, increased life expectancies can be expected to induce increased savings over the working life in order to finance a continued high standard of life in retirement. As the elderly are healthier, they can work longer and more productively and place fewer demands on public resources. Businesses can play a role in encouraging older workers to continue working, and they can in turn benefit from such workers’ experience and reliability. Allowing flexible schedules, offering ongoing training in new skills, providing wellness programmes, and re-allocating physically demanding tasks to younger workers are measures that can help retain the older segment of the workforce.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
4.6 Consequences for Living Standards
Labour supply adequacy is one factor influencing standard of living of the population. It refers to the ratio of the quality-adjusted workforce to the total consumption needs of the population. But not all people have equal consumption needs. For example, the government spends much more per capita on the over-65 population than it does on other age groups.
Demographic trends will have adverse effects on economic growth after 2010, due in large part to the slowdown in the growth of the workforce and the increase in spending on age-related government transfers. But the effects do not appear to be catastrophic. The economy will continue to grow, even at a slower rate. Capital will increase considerably, even though lower national savings rate, as a smaller workforce requires less capital.
Individual and population ageing are not gender neutral. Women’s entitlement to goods and services over time is closely related to their work history, pension, property and inheritance rights. Old women generally occupy a precarious economic position, as they have accumulated fewer financial reserves than men, have fewer assets of their own and, more often than not, experience a weakening of their control over the family assets with the death of the husband. Poverty is a real threat to women as they get older. It is therefore imperative that any financial and social scheme developed to care for an ageing population should include targeted policies for the support of the elderly women.
4.8 Influences on Public Savings
Public saving is what is left of taxes after subtracting transfers, interest paid on government debt, and government consumption. Public saving is also government investment minus the budget deficit. Future public saving will be affected by the ageing of the population because major government transfer programs-social security and the health programs (Medicare and Medicaid) – disproportionately benefit the elderly.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
Found that the elderly not only do not dissave to finance their consumption during retirement, they spend less on consumption goods and services than the young at all levels of income. Moreover, the oldest old save the most at a given levels of income. At the same time, while their human capital and private pension wealth is being depleted, especially at the most advanced ages, the elderly face a complex problem of uncertainty about their health, life expectancy, and ability to maintain independent households. In these circumstances, they reduce their consumption to maintain their wealth.
The problem of population ageing, which is a consequence of fertility decline, has become the new “bête noire” of development, replacing rapid population growth, a consequence of high fertility. It is ironic that population ageing and rapid population growth are two faces of the same coin: fertility. Both population growth and ageing have an adverse effect on savings, it is argued, as the young and the old are more consumers than producers, and thus dependent on the working population. The orthodox debate not only ignores the positive contribution that the old could and do make to the economy, but also fails to recognize the fact that there are other sections of the population, such as the unemployed, who are also supported by the working population. From a long term point of view, however, it is the working age and not just the working population that matters. Keynes and others argued that population ageing would reduce growth via its adverse impact on aggregate demand and investment, and not because of a higher tax burden and government expenditure on social security and pensions. The relevance of this approach to the current debate on ageing in its integrated view of the demand and supply or consumption and production implications of population ageing, in contrast to the orthodox approach which is primarily concerned with the consumption effects of ageing.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
The economic implications of an ageing population are intricately intertwined with the macroeconomic performance of a society over time. At the macro level it is the current output that has to pay for the subsistence of the population, young or old, at working age or retired. The current output, however, depends in part on past savings and investment. In other words the work and savings of the present generation provide subsistence and employment for the present as well as for the future generation. The benefits of growing national income and increased productivity will not, however, be distributed equally among the old whose claim on the national income depends on their accumulated assets, including savings and pensions. An economy which distributes its assets and income unequally over its working age population carries such inequalities into old age, thus creating a differentiated group of old people. This has to be taken into account in the setting up of national pension plans in order to prevent hardship among those old people whose poverty when of working age prevented them from saving for their old age.
Euro’s latest stats of population projections (EUROPOP2010) were made covering the period from 2011 to 2060 – and show that population ageing is likely to affect all EU Member States over this period. The convergence scenario is one of several possible population change scenarios that aim to provide information about the likely future size and structure of the population. According to this scenario, the EU’s population will be slightly higher in 2060, while the age structure of the population will be much older than it is now and it will badly effect the European economy by creating major unemployment.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
Traditionally, the extended family would look after the older generation. While this role is still attributed to the family in many parts of the world, particularly in non-Western nations, the modern family has evolved in such a way that care for the aged is now provided for by the state and various charitable organizations. Some of the main reasons why elders are less likely to be taken care of exclusively by their families include the decreasing size of families, the increased longevity of the elderly, the geographic dispersion of families, and the fact that women have become more educated and commonly work outside the home. While this trend is widespread in Europe and North America, there is growing evidence of it in many parts of Asia, too. The various forms that elderly care services can take include assisted living, adult day care, long-term care, nursing homes, hospice care, and in-home care. The different institutions can further be classified as medical (skilled) care and non-medical (social) care.
Several countries today are facing an aging population, where the median age of the population has increased and a larger portion of the population is considered to be older. Two primary reasons for this are increased life expectancy and lower birth rates. Currently, the majority of the countries facing this demographic phenomenon consists of advanced economies, such as Japan and many parts of Europe. However, it is predicted that the greatest future impact will occur in Asia.
Advantages of an Older Population
There may be some economic advantages to having an older population. For example, since older people have higher accumulated savings per head than younger individuals do, a large aged population can result in lower interest rates as well as a lower rate of inflation. However, for the most part, a substantial aged population leads to a lot of financial pressure on both the public and private sectors.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
Disadvantages of an Older Population
One of the problems that may arise from a large segment of society being aged is a pension crisis. In the U.S., it is probably going to become increasingly difficult to pay corporate, federal, and state pensions, because the number of workers relative to retirees is shrinking. In order to improve the sustainability of the pension system, a few measures can be undertaken. For example, the worker-retiree ratio can be rectified by increasing the retirement age or by changing employment and immigration policies. Alternatively, it may be possible to reduce the amount owed to retirees. Finally, it may become necessary to expand resources to fund pensions through increased contributions or higher taxes. Trying to implement any of these solutions will likely result in some level of controversy and public debate.
Another significant source of problems related to an older population resides in the healthcare sector. In 1965, Congress created Medicare under the Social Security Act in order to provide health insurance to U.S. citizens over the age of 65, regardless of their income and medical history. Aside from premiums paid by Medicare enrollees along with the fund source itself, Medicare is financed by revenue levied on employers and workers through the Federal Insurance Contributions Act and the Self-Employment Contributions Act. However, due to rising enrollment as the population ages and a decreasing ratio of workers to enrollers, Medicare is facing financial difficulties. While the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is supposed to address many issues confronting the healthcare sector today, the rising cost of healthcare remains a national problem, as patients are paying more in order to receive the same care as before.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
The latest population estimate by the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry, released late last month, points to the accelerating decline of Japan’s population with ever fewer births. The number of babies born in this country in 2018 is estimated at 921,000 — down 25,000 from the previous year and falling short of 1 million for the third year in a row. The lowest annual number of births on record since the government began taking comparable statistics in 1899 was outnumbered by 1.36 million deaths — a postwar record — thereby resulting in a record decline in the population — 448,000 people — for the 12th year-on-year fall in a row.
The Abe administration has vowed to tackle this “national crisis” by taking steps to support young couples in raising children, such as making preschool education free. However, the statistics indicate that it will be extremely hard to alter the demographic trend anytime soon. While those steps should be steadily taken over the long term, the government also needs to introduce policies geared toward the reality that the aging and shrinking of the population will continue.
The number of annual births in Japan hit a record 2.69 million in 1949 during the postwar baby boom. When the second baby-boomer generation was born in the early 1970s, the number still topped 2 million each year. But then it began to decline — dipping below 1.5 million in 1984, 1.1 million in 2005 and 1 million in 2016. The total fertility rate, the estimated number of children a woman gives birth to in her lifetime, fell below 2.07 — the level deemed necessary to maintain a population — in the mid-1970s and has never recovered that threshold.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
The decline in the fertility rate has been attributed to a combination of various factors: changing lifestyles, more people marrying later in life or not marrying at all, the economic insecurity of younger generations in recent decades, which leave couples balking at having more than one child or any kids at all, and so on. The health ministry notes that after the second baby-boomer generation passed their mid-40s, the number of women of primary child-bearing age declined significantly.
The Abe administration has set a target of raising the fertility rate back to 1.8 by 2025. That is still far out of reach considering that the rate of 2017 was 1.43. Moreover, the shrinking population of women of child-bearing age means that even a near-term pickup in the fertility rate would not result in a substantial recovery in the number of births. The fertility rate hit a record low of 1.26 in 2005 and has since recovered a bit. But the annual number of births was higher in 2005 at 1.06 million than in 2017 at 946,000.
To make up for the tightening domestic manpower shortage in the aging and declining population, the government passed an amendment to the immigration control law through the Diet last year, opening the door for foreign workers to engage in manual labor, which it had banned earlier, at least officially. The government expects to accept up to 345,000 workers in five years under the program that begins in April. However, government figures show that the nation’s population is declining at a much faster pace, and that rate is expected to accelerate.
Policy efforts to a build a secure environment that helps younger couples raise children must continue. At the same time, the government needs to pursue policies that sustain the economy and society as the population shrinks and grays. Those should include structural reforms of the economy and labor reforms aimed at increasing the nation’s productivity despite the declining manpower supply, as well as measures to get more elderly people and women to play active roles in the labor force.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
In a recent proposal on Japan’s policy on employment of its elderly workers in response to the decline in the primary working-age population, the OECD called for a phaseout of the mandatory retirement age system that is prevalent in Japanese businesses and organizations. The government is now weighing measures to extend the age through which companies would be required to rehire their retired workers — from the current 65 to possibly 70 — to encourage more elderly people to remain in the labor force. But the OECD proposal calls for abolishing the mandatory retirement system after gradually raising the retirement age — which remains at 60 among a majority of Japanese firms. It also calls for improving workplace conditions for elderly employees, who are currently given unstable, low-paying jobs, by introducing a mechanism that properly evaluates their experience and capability, and offering them new job training.
The needed policies will also include fundamental reform of the social security system that can be sustained by a shrinking and graying population. We must face the challenges caused by demographic changes head on.
The social and economic implications of an aging population are becoming increasingly apparent in many industrialized nations around the globe. With populations in places such as North America, Western Europe and Japan aging more rapidly than ever before, policymakers are confronted with several interrelated issues, including a decline in the working-age population, increased health care costs, unsustainable pension commitments and changing demand drivers within the economy. These issues could significantly undermine the high living standard enjoyed in many advanced economies.
Advanced Industrialized Societies Are Growing Older
As of December 2015, people 65 or older account for more than 20% of the total population in only three countries: Germany, Italy and Japan. This figure is expected to rise to 13 countries by 2020 and 34 countries by 2013.
Decline in Working-Age Population
A rapidly aging population means there are fewer working-age people in the economy. This leads to a supply shortage of qualified workers, making it more difficult for businesses to fill in-demand roles. An economy that cannot fill in-demand occupations faces adverse consequences, including declining productivity, higher labor costs, delayed business expansion and reduced international competitiveness. In some instances, a supply shortage may push up wages, thereby causing wage inflation and creating a vicious cycle of price/wage spiral.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
To compensate, many countries look to immigration to keep their labor forces well supplied. While countries such as Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom are attracting more highly skilled immigrants, integrating them into the workforce can be a challenge because domestic employers may not recognize immigrant credentials and work experience, especially if they were obtained in countries outside of North America, Western Europe and Australia.
Increase in Health Care Costs
Given that demand for health care rises with age, countries with rapidly aging populations must allocate more money and resources to their health care systems. With health care spending as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) already high in most advanced economies, it is difficult to increase spending while ensuring care improves and other social needs do not deteriorate in the case of publicly funded or government-administered health care systems.
Additionally, the health care sector in many advanced economies faces similar issues, including labor and skills shortages, increased demand for home care and the need to invest in new technologies. All of these cost escalators make it more difficult for existing systems to handle the increased prevalence of chronic diseases, let alone sufficiently address the needs of large and growing senior populations.
Increase in Dependency Ratio
Countries with large elderly populations depend on smaller pools of workers in which to collect taxes to pay for higher health costs, pension benefits and other publicly funded programs. This is becoming more common in advanced economies where retirees live on fixed incomes with much smaller tax brackets than workers. The combination of lower tax revenue and higher spending commitments on health care, pension and other benefits is a major concern for advanced industrialized nations.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
Changes to the Economy
An economy with a significant share of seniors and retirees has different demand drivers than an economy with a higher birth rate and a larger working-age population. For example, rapidly aging populations tend to have greater demands for health care services and retirement homes. Although this is not necessarily negative, economies may face challenges transitioning to markets that are increasingly driven by goods and services linked to older people. As advanced economies become older over the next 15 years, it remains to be seen whether immigration will fill the voids in sectors left by aging populations or whether the broader economies will have to adjust to changing demographics.
As the population of the United States ages and lifespan increases, the U.S. is being faced with challenges that could either hurt the country or benefit it if plans are executed correctly. By the year 2050, more than thirty-two million Americans will be over the age eighty and the share of the 80-plus generation will have doubled to 7.4 percent. Health care and aging population has become a great deal considering the impact it is having on the U.S. The United States is heading into another century with an outstanding percentage of people within the aging population. Today’s challenges involving health care and the aging populations are the employees of health professions being a major percentage of the aging population, the drive into debt, and prevention and postponement of disease and disability.
One of the issues involving health care and the aging population is majority of health profession employees being a percentage of the aging population. With the knowledge of health profession employees being a factor in the aging population puts a strain on doctors and nurses that come into the workforce after ones have retired. The fewer employees there are, the greater the work load will become on one person. It is imperative for each nurse in a unit to have four patients maximum. Giving more responsibility to one employee does not make the situation less of a challenge, it more so puts people’s lives at a greater risk of danger. The new demands placed on the health care system for health services will not only include a need for more workers, but also require changes in the way services are provided.
Debatably, parts of the society do not work amicably as expected. Conflict is all what the society undergoes. The young and elderly are in constant competition for the limited resources. Despite the fact that the resources are abundant in the ground, competition that each an individual faces is so difficult hence conflict is always kept in check. Whether they perceive it or not, the elderly are suppose to compete with the young for health care and resources. As competition heats up, it leads to open conflict between the young and the senior thus throwing the society into turmoil. Actually the guiding opinion of any social life is conflict and disequilibrium.
On conflict perspective, social problems are inevitable and come naturally as result of social struggle. Actually at the base of any social problem there lies strong contest over supply of privilege and power (William & Julian, 2008) .For examples in America the elderly who have retired have fought for the resources through the formation of political lobbies. According to conflict theorists the social problems associated with the elderly come in two different forms. First concerns the elderly been oppressed by the powerful in the society. The other problem comes when the elderly resist oppression and appeal to moral values.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
Conflict theorists believe that the primary source of social troubles come as a result of oppression and exploitation. They consider inequality in society as a wrong and unprincipled aspect of a society. Structural-functionalist view it in a different perspective in that they view the conflicts between the aged and other members of the society as an essential for the integration and smooth running of the society. Both theories though arguing on a different perspective, believe that discrimination and stereotyping strengthens the dominant groups and oppresses the elderly. Conflict theorists see social change as continuous, immediate and inevitable as the young groups seek to replace the old in social chain of command.
Aging in the modern society is a social problem on its own. The elderly individuals in the modern society have less power and lower social status, but they cannot accept ageing as a way in which cannot be avoided at all. It is a natural way in which the human body undergoes some deterioration. In United States an elderly generation is persistently increasing (William & Julian, 2008). This fact has significant impacts on lives of individuals and the social institutions that exist in society. The problems related to the aged are motivated by three significant factors: the notion of work as an individual value, economic hardship and labeling.
In the society each institution has a duty to fulfill. Aging has become a social problem because institutions in the modern society do not meet the needs of the elderly people who are weak. The elderly face stigmatization because they are not in a position to adapt to the society full of youth-oriented norms. Conflict theorist’s review the social problems of the elderly as stemming from lack of evidence to influence societal institutions to meet their needs.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
The issue of modernization has changed almost all activities in the society. Many of the problems facing the aging generation in America recently emerge from the nature of modernization of the western society. The elderly face lots of challenges in the production sector. More of the work is carried out using machines which the elderly have no idea on how it operates. Ageism is not well defined in all sectors hence the elderly have no choice but to agree to negative branding that the society gives them. For example people believe that as individuals grow older their intellectual ability and capacity declines.
The society is dominated by youth and glamour therefore the actual role of the elderly has no value. Growing old implies that there is continuous deterioration of mental and physical mechanisms that are essential for effectual performance in the community. A capitalist nation such all in the world today, old age is significantly viewed as been a handicap. The youth does not appreciate the fabulous contribution and the high positions held by the so called the “handicapped”. The elderly should be held in particularly high esteem and idolized for their knowledge, contributions, wisdom and experiences.
Perhaps age stratification has affected the elderly tremendously. In the modern society people are mostly segregated on the basis of age. This segregation limits the type of roles in which members of each cluster can hold and work on. This scenario leaves the elderly in a worse off group, leading to conflict in the society. The elderly are in the recent past been discriminated (William & Julian, 2008).Stereotypes believe that the old people are intellectually rigid, asexual, unproductive, reclusive and ineffective. Furthermore discrimination causes emotional and psychological abuse to the elderly resulting to depression and low self-esteem. Continuity of discrimination makes the elderly grow apathetically and finally withdraw from the society. Additionally age discrimination erodes senior’s confidence and dignity, finally affecting their romance and love lifestyle.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
Aging comes up with drastic health issues. In most cases they are prone to highly chronic diseases. These diseases associated to old age include the metabolism of glucose in the brain and cardiac disturbance. As individuals grow old they stop or reduce their workload, therefore affecting the general lifestyle and functioning of the body. The change in lifestyles activities and other social contacts affect morbidity and mortality. Health issues of the aging increase spending on health care programs which include medical expenses and nursing homes. This problem increases daily; this is so because the elderly face exceptionally high medical bills with decreasing or low incomes. In America the old spent twice as much on health care as their youthful counterparts, more than half of this goes to insurance (William & Julian, 2008).The elderly who are poor, women and the minority spend higher ratio of their total resources on health care.
Abuse and victimization has become part and parcel of the elderly in the 21st century. These abuses include financial exploitation, physical abuse, psychological abuse and the medical abuse. In America the elderly who are abused in one way or another is estimated to be 2.1 million or more. Those abused at home or institutions are mostly female, whites, individuals with low income and widows.
The elderly who retire have a problem adjusting to the new environment. Retiring puts much pressure on the elderly to adjust to their new status. In the society there are no role models in which the elderly can learn from. Retirement comes with reduction of income hence spending should be adjusted in order to guarantee survival .Now days policies have been put in place which makes retirement a mandatory at a certain age. They also face extra hardships such as discrimination when seeking new jobs. Most countries have no articulate policies that deal with housing; in addition the programs that deal with health care of the elderly are inadequate and costly. Hence it is difficult for the old to enjoy their short life .The social security systems have also faced lots of criticism; it discriminates against those elderly who are still working and women. The payments from the systems are extremely minimal to offer support to the elderly who have no other supply of income (William & Julian, 2008).
The baby boomers age group consists of individuals who were born between the years 1946-1964. Due to the shifting needs and steep statistics baby boomers will still influence the society in different ways. The world has improved on the health care to its people therefore life expectancy has increased and individual don’t want to bear children hence there is a total demographic shift. Baby boomers are currently at their 40s and 50s. They have fully affected the overall age structure of society. In addition, they are the barriers to the employment of the young, this is because they have increased the average age of those who are working and the general size of labor force. Arguably, the World will still feel the impact of baby boomers in the labor sector for more years to come. Recently baby boomers have the highest percentage of labor force. With a continuous increase of baby boomers in the work force will imply that the percentage of the unemployed youth increases each and every day. The number of old people in the work place will also be increasing. The youth too will be growing old and when they are employed they will be of an older age. The trend will persist for many years.The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper
Baby boomers when compared financially to their parents they are at better off. The households’ real median income of baby boomers is 35-53 percent higher than what their parents had. In every society, not all people in the same class achieve the same things; some baby boomers did not perform well economically hence most of them remained poor. As the baby boomers generations ages, lots of policies should be put in place so as to help the elderly in the future. The baby boomers too faced different conditions of the economy because of variances in their cohorts (William & Julian, 2008).Some enjoyed economic boom while others were born during economic recession. This scenario caused differences in age distribution of the economically disadvantaged and the poor in society.
The society should go beyond aging and learn more about the concept of aging. In fact we should do away with the erroneous thinking and beliefs that are associated to aging. The old have their rights and freedoms that should be respected. They are human beings hence they have sexual feelings and emotions. The elderly should not be blamed for the persistent increase in social and health care costs. The increase of health and social costs are caused by global economic crisis. The youth need to stop the stereotype thinking and listen to seniors who have wisdom and experience. The media too need to change the ways in which they portrayed the elderly in society. Media reaches many people therefore the perception of ageing can be changed easily by them.
In conclusion we expect that the society changes its negative view of the elderly. Otherwise in the meantime we should comprehend and accept that there is something inherently erroneous with the way the old in society are viewed. Very little research has been carried out to determine the causes of ageism. Therefore more concern should be put on the causes of ageism. We should not be stereotypes and only believe that it is nature taking its course. Mostly the problems of the elderly in society are compounded by a deficiency of interaction, inactivity and loneliness. The old are segregated and left alone either in retirement institutions or nursing homes away from friends and family members. Furthermore they are isolated from schools and flow of work. This should not be the case, the elderly should be made active and interacted with family members and friends. The Challenges of Care to Age Group Population Essay Paper